As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on December 14, 2021

Registration No. 333-             

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549 

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

EYENOVIA, INC.

 

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

47-1178401

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

 

295 Madison Avenue, Suite 2400

New York, New York 10017

Telephone: (917) 289-1117

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

 

Tsontcho Ianchulev

Chief Executive Officer

295 Madison Avenue, Suite 2400

New York, New York 10017

Telephone: (917) 289-1117

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

 

Copies to:

 

Megan Gates, Esq.

Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky

& Popeo, P.C.

One Financial Center

Boston, MA 02111

(617) 542-6000

 

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement as determined by the registrant.

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box: ¨

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box: x

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ¨

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one).

 

Large accelerated filer ¨ Accelerated filer ¨
Non-accelerated filer x Smaller reporting company x
  Emerging growth company x

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act. ¨

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

Proposed Maximum

Aggregate Offering

Price (2)(3)

Amount of

Registration Fee (1)

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share
Preferred Stock, $0.0001 par value per share
Debt Securities
Warrants
Units
Rights
Total $100,000,000 (4)

 

(1)Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, based on the proposed maximum aggregate offering price.

 

(2)There are being registered hereunder such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock, such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities, such indeterminate number of warrants and rights, and such indeterminate number of units, as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $100,000,000. If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the offering price of such debt securities shall be in such greater principal amount as shall result in an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $100,000,000, less the aggregate dollar amount of all securities previously issued hereunder Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with other securities registered hereunder. The proposed maximum initial offering price per unit will be determined, from time to time, by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder. The securities registered also include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock and amount of debt securities as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for preferred stock or debt securities that provide for conversion or exchange, upon exercise of warrants or rights, or pursuant to the anti-dilution provisions of any such securities. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.

 

(3)The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of security will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

 

(4)Pursuant to Rule 457(p) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant hereby offsets the total registration fee due under this Registration Statement by the amount of the filing fee associated with the unsold securities from the registrant’s Form S-3 Registration Statement (File No. 333-229365) filed with the Commission on January 25, 2019, which was declared effective on February 12, 2019 (the “Prior Registration Statement”). The Prior Registration Statement registered the offer and sale of an indeterminate number of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, units and rights with an aggregate offering price not to exceed $75,000,000.00, of which $34,384,512.33 of such securities (the “Unsold Securities”) remain unsold as of the filing date of this Registration Statement. The Unsold Securities (and associated registration fees) are being moved from the Prior Registration Statement to this Registration Statement. Pursuant to Rule 457(p), the associated filing fee of $3,440.20 relating to such Unsold Securities under the Prior Registration Statement, calculated under Rule 457(o), is hereby used to partially offset the current registration fee of $9,270.00 due. As a result, a filing fee of $5,829.80 is being paid herewith.

 

THE REGISTRANT HEREBY AMENDS THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT ON SUCH DATE OR DATES AS MAY BE NECESSARY TO DELAY ITS EFFECTIVE DATE UNTIL THE REGISTRANT SHALL FILE A FURTHER AMENDMENT WHICH SPECIFICALLY STATES THAT THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL THEREAFTER BECOME EFFECTIVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 8(a) OF THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, AS AMENDED, OR UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL BECOME EFFECTIVE ON SUCH DATE AS THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION, ACTING PURSUANT TO SAID SECTION 8(a), MAY DETERMINE.

 

  

 

 

EXPLANATORY NOTE

 

This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

 

·a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to $100,000,000 in the aggregate of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings; and

 

·a sales agreement prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $50,000,000 of our common stock that may be issued and sold from time to time under a Sales Agreement with SVB Leerink LLC, dated as of December 14, 2021.

 

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The Sales Agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The $50,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under the Sales Agreement prospectus is included in the $100,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the base prospectus. Upon termination of the Sales Agreement with SVB Leerink LLC, any portion of the $50,000,000 included in the Sales Agreement prospectus that is not sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement, and if no shares are sold under the sales agreement, the full $100,000,000 of securities may be sold in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement subject to any applicable limitations set forth herein and therein.

 

  

 

 

THE INFORMATION IN THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT COMPLETE AND MAY BE CHANGED. WE MAY NOT SELL THESE SECURITIES UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT FILED WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION IS EFFECTIVE. THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT AN OFFER TO SELL THESE SECURITIES AND IS NOT SOLICITING AN OFFER TO BUY THESE SECURITIES IN ANY STATE WHERE THE OFFER OR SALE IS NOT PERMITTED.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED DECEMBER 14, 2021

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

$100,000,000

COMMON STOCK

PREFERRED STOCK

DEBT SECURITIES

WARRANTS

RIGHTS

UNITS

 

This prospectus will allow us to issue, from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined at or prior to the time of the offering, up to $100,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, either individually or in units. We may also offer common stock, or preferred stock upon conversion of or exchange for the debt securities; common stock upon conversion of or exchange for preferred stock; common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants or rights.

 

This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide you with the specific terms of any offering in one or more supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, as well as any documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, carefully before you invest.

 

Our securities may be sold directly by us to you, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement. If any underwriters or agents are involved in the sale of our securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such underwriters or agents and any applicable fees, commissions or discounts and over- allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds that we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

 

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “EYEN.” On December 10, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $3.76 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing, if any, on The Nasdaq Capital Market or any securities market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement. Prospective purchasers of our securities are urged to obtain current information as to the market prices of our securities, where applicable.

 

We are an “emerging growth company” and a “smaller reporting company” under applicable Securities and Exchange Commission rules and are subject to reduced public company reporting requirements for this prospectus and future filings.

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” included in any accompanying prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase these securities.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this prospectus is                          , 2021.

 

  

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

  Page
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS 1
   
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY 2
   
RISK FACTORS 7
   
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS 8
   
USE OF PROCEEDS 10
   
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION 11
   
DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK 13
   
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK 14
   
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES 16
   
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS 22
   
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS 24
   
DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS 25
   
CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF DELAWARE LAW AND OF THE COMPANY’S CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION AND BYLAWS 27
   
LEGAL MATTERS 30
   
EXPERTS 30
   
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION 30
   
INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE 30

 

  

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may offer shares of our common stock, various series of debt securities or preferred stock, and warrants or rights to purchase any such securities, either individually or in units, in one or more offerings, with a total value of up to $100,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering.

 

This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For a more complete understanding of the offering of the securities, you should refer to the registration statement, including its exhibits. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. However, no prospectus supplement will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness. This prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplements and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, includes all material information relating to the offering of securities under this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement, the information and documents incorporated herein by reference and the additional information under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” before making an investment decision.

 

You should rely only on the information we have provided or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You must not rely on any unauthorized information or representation. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. You should assume that the information in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information we have incorporated herein by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of a security.

 

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in the prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

 

This prospectus may not be used to consummate sales of our securities, unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement. To the extent there are inconsistencies between any prospectus supplement, this prospectus and any documents incorporated by reference, the document with the most recent date will control.

 

Unless the context otherwise requires, “Eyenovia,” “EYEN,” “the Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to Eyenovia, Inc. and our subsidiaries.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

The following is a summary of what we believe to be the most important aspects of our business and the offering of our securities under this prospectus. We urge you to read this entire prospectus, including the more detailed consolidated financial statements, notes to the consolidated financial statements and other information incorporated by reference from our other filings with the SEC or included in any applicable prospectus supplement. Investing in our securities involves risks. Therefore, carefully consider the risk factors set forth in any prospectus supplements and in our most recent annual and quarterly filings with the SEC, as well as other information in this prospectus and any prospectus supplements and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein, before purchasing our securities. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities.

 

About Eyenovia, Inc.

 

We are a clinical stage ophthalmic biopharmaceutical company developing a pipeline of advanced therapeutics based on our proprietary microdose array print (MAP™) therapeutics. We aim to achieve clinical microdosing of next-generation formulations of well-established ophthalmic pharmaceutical agents using our high-precision targeted ocular delivery system, branded the Optejet® which has the potential to replace conventional eye dropper delivery and improve safety, tolerability, patient compliance and topical delivery success for ophthalmic eye treatments. In the clinic, the Optejet has demonstrated the ability to horizontally deliver ophthalmic medication with a success rate significantly higher than that of traditional eye drops (~ 90% vs. ~ 50%). Our technology is designed to achieve single-digit µl-volume physiologic drug delivery with up to a 75% reduction in ocular drug and preservative topical dosing and has demonstrated significant improvement in the therapeutic index in drugs used for mydriasis and IOP lowering through three Phase II and Phase III trials. Conventional eye formulations lack high-precision micro-volume delivery and expose the ocular surface to approximately 300% more medication and preservatives than are physiologically indicated leading to clinically recognized ocular and non-ocular side effects. Using the Optejet, we are developing the next generation of smart ophthalmic therapeutics which target new indications or new combinations where there are currently no comparable drug therapies approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, (the “FDA”). Our microdose therapeutics follow the FDA-designated pharmaceutical registration and regulatory process. Consistent with the recent FDA reclassification of MydCombi, we believe that most of our product candidates are, or will be, classified by the FDA as drug-led combination products.

 

Our pipeline is currently focused on the late-stage development of novel, potential first-in-class therapeutic indications for over an estimated five million potential patients with progressive myopia in the United States and over an estimated one hundred million potential patients with age-related near vision impairment, or presbyopia - indications where there is tremendous unmet need and no known existing FDA-approved therapies. We are also developing the first microdose fixed combination ophthalmic pharmaceutical for mydriasis to address the estimated over 100 million annual comprehensive eye exams with pupil dilation.

 

MicroPine is our investigational first-in-class topical therapy for the treatment of progressive myopia, a back-of-the-eye ocular disease associated with pathologic axial elongation and sclero-retinal stretching. In the United States, myopia is estimated to affect approximately 25 million children, with up to five million considered to be at risk for high myopia. In February 2019, the FDA accepted our investigational new drug application, or IND, to initiate a Phase III registration trial of MicroPine (the CHAPERONE study) to reduce the progression of myopia in children. We enrolled the first patient in the CHAPERONE study in June 2019. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we experienced delays in trial enrollment and initiation as a result of reduced clinical trial activities and operations at investigator sites during the first half of 2020. However, we have since been able to resume enrollment in the CHAPERONE study at a slower pace than initially planned.

 

On October 9, 2020, we entered into a License Agreement (the “Bausch License Agreement”) with a subsidiary of Bausch Health Companies Inc. (“Bausch Health”) pursuant to which Bausch Health may develop and commercialize MicroPine in the United States and Canada. Under the terms of the Bausch License Agreement, we received an upfront payment of $10.0 million and we may receive up to a total of $35.0 million in additional payments, based on the achievement of certain regulatory and launch-based milestones. Bausch Health also will pay us royalties on a tiered basis (ranging from mid-single digit to mid-teen percentages) on gross profits from sales of MicroPine in the United States and Canada, subject to certain adjustments. Under the terms of the Bausch License Agreement, Bausch Health is in the process of assuming oversight for, and has assumed the costs related to the ongoing CHAPERONE study.

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MicroLine is our investigational pharmacologic treatment for presbyopia. Presbyopia is a non-preventable, age-related hardening of the lens, which causes the gradual loss of the eye’s ability to focus at near and impairs near visual acuity. There currently are no known FDA-approved drugs for the improvement of near vision in patients with presbyopia, although other companies have related therapies in their pipeline. We have two planned Phase III VISION trials for MicroLine, and initiated the first of these trials in December 2020. On May 25, 2021, we announced positive topline data from the Phase III VISION-1 study evaluating MicroLine for the temporary improvement of near vision in adults with presbyopia. The study achieved its primary endpoint and the Company recently initiated VISION -2, a second Phase III registration study. VISION-2, is a double-masked, placebo-controlled, cross-over superiority trial designed to enroll 120 patients randomized between 2% pilocarpine and placebo cohorts. Topline data from VISION-2 is anticipated in mid-2022. These studies will serve as the basis for a planned New Drug Application (NDA) submission to FDA. VISION-1 results will be presented at a future ophthalmic-focused medical meeting.

 

On August 10, 2020, we entered into a License Agreement (the “Arctic Vision License Agreement”) with Arctic Vision (Hong Kong) Limited (“Arctic Vision”), pursuant to which Arctic Vision may develop and commercialize MicroPine and MicroLine in Greater China (mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan) and South Korea. Under the terms of the Arctic Vision License Agreement, we received an upfront payment of $4.0 million before any payments to Senju Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (“Senju”). In addition, we may receive up to a total of $43.75 million in additional payments, based on various development and regulatory milestones, including the initiation of clinical research and approvals in Greater China and South Korea, and development costs. Milestone revenue includes $2.0 million related to the MicroStat product resulting from Amendment 1 to the Arctic Vision License Agreement between the Company and Arctic Vision which was executed on September 14, 2021. Arctic Vision also will purchase its supply of MicroPine, MicroLine and MicroStat from us or, for such products not supplied by us, pay us a mid-single digit percentage royalty on net sales of such products, subject to certain adjustments. We will pay a mid-double digit percentage of such payments, royalties, or net proceeds of such supply to Senju pursuant to the Exclusive License Agreement with Senju dated March 8, 2015, as amended by the License Amendment dated April 8, 2020, and a Letter Agreement dated August 10, 2020 (the “Senju License Agreement”).

 

The Senju License Agreement was amended further by the License Amendment 2, effective September 14, 2021 (the “Amendment 2”). The Amendment 2 excludes Greater China and South Korea from the territory in which Senju was granted an exclusive royalty-bearing license from the Company. In consideration for this exclusion, and upon and after the execution of Amendment 1 with Arctic Vision, the Company must make payments to Senju based on non-royalty license revenue and sales revenue, including a one-time upfront payment of $250,000 which represented an inducement to Senju to approve Amendment 1 of the Arctic Vision License Agreement related to the MicroStat Product. This upfront payment to Senju was in addition to and separate from the previously established 40% payment on milestone revenue.

 

MydCombi™ (or MicroStat) is our fixed combination formulation of phenylephrine-tropicamide for mydriasis, designed to be a novel approach for the estimated over one hundred million office-based comprehensive and diabetic eye exams performed every year in the United States. We have completed two Phase III trials for MydCombi and announced positive results from these studies, known as MIST-1 and MIST-2. In March 2021, the FDA accepted our NDA, for MydCombi for use to achieve mydriasis in routine diagnostic procedures and in conditions where short-term pupil dilation is desired. On October 25, 2021, the Company announced the reclassification of the Company’s proprietary, first-in-class combination microdose formulation of tropicamide and phenylephrine for in-office pupil dilation, MydCombi, as a drug-device combination product by the FDA in a Complete Response Letter (“CRL”) received on October 22, 2021, following a change in the agency’s legal interpretation of its authorities imposed by a recent court ruling. The Company is preparing the necessary documents for expedited resubmission of the new drug application for MydCombi in response to the CRL.

 

We have not received U.S. marketing approval for any product candidate and we have therefore not generated any revenues from product sales.

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Additional Information

 

For additional information related to our business and operations, please refer to the reports incorporated herein by reference, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as described under the caption “Incorporation of Documents by Reference” on page 30 of this prospectus.

 

Impact of COVID-19

 

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic and recommended containment and mitigation measures worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic has been evolving, and to date has led to the implementation of various responses, including government-imposed quarantines, travel restrictions and other public health safety measures.

 

Management continues to closely monitor the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on all aspects of the business, including how it will impact operations and the operations of customers, vendors, and business partners. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have experienced delays in trial enrollment and initiation as a result of reduced clinical trial activities and operations at investigator sites. However, we have since been able to resume operations largely as they were prior to the pandemic. The extent to which COVID-19 impacts the future business, results of operation and financial condition will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence at this time, such as the continued duration of the outbreak, new information that may emerge concerning the severity or other strains of COVID-19 or the effectiveness of actions to contain COVID-19 or treat its impact, among others. If we or any of the third parties with which we engage, however, were to experience shutdowns or other business disruptions, the ability to conduct our business in the manner and on the timelines presently planned could be materially and negatively affected, which could have a material adverse impact on business, results of operation and financial condition. The estimates of the impact on the Company’s business may change based on new information that may emerge concerning COVID-19 and the actions to contain it or treat its impact and the economic impact on local, regional, national, and international markets.

 

Our Corporate Information

 

We were organized as a corporation under the laws of the State of Florida on March 12, 2014 under the name “PGP Holdings V, Inc.” On May 5, 2014, we changed our name to Eyenovia, Inc. On October 6, 2014, we reincorporated in the State of Delaware by merging into Eyenovia, Inc., a Delaware corporation. Our principal executive office is located at 295 Madison Avenue, Suite 2400, New York, NY 10017, and our telephone number is 917-289-1117. We maintain a website at http://www.eyenovia.com, to which we regularly post copies of our press releases as well as additional information about us. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

 

All brand names or trademarks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective holders. Use or display by us of other parties’ trademarks, trade dress, or products in this prospectus is not intended to, and does not, imply a relationship with, or endorsements or sponsorship of, us by the trademark or trade dress owners.

 

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

 

As a company with less than $1.07 billion in revenue during our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we are permitted and intend to rely on exemptions from specified disclosure requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These exemptions include:

 

·being permitted to provide only two years of audited financial statements, in addition to any required unaudited interim financial statements, with correspondingly reduced “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” disclosure;

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·not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting;

 

·not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements;

 

·reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation; and

  

·exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.

 

We may take advantage of these provisions through 2023 or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. We would cease to be an emerging growth company if we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenues, have more than $700 million in market value of our capital stock held by non-affiliates, or issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period. We may choose to take advantage of some, but not all, of the available exemptions. We have taken advantage of some reduced reporting burdens in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, the information contained herein may be different than the information you receive from other public companies in which you hold stock.

 

In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This provision allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of some accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected to avail ourselves of this exemption from new or revised accounting standards and, therefore, will not be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

 

We are also a “smaller reporting company” as defined under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. We may continue to be a smaller reporting company so long as either (i) the market value of shares of our common stock held by non-affiliates is less than $250 million or (ii) our annual revenue was less than $100 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and the market value of shares of our common stock held by non-affiliates is less than $700 million. If we are a smaller reporting company at the time we cease to be an emerging growth company, we may continue to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are available to smaller reporting companies. Specifically, as a smaller reporting company, we may choose to present only the two most recent fiscal years of audited financial statements in our Annual Report on Form 10-K and have reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation, and, similar to emerging growth companies, if we are a smaller reporting company under the requirements of (ii) above, we would not be required to obtain an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm.

 

Offerings Under This Prospectus

 

Under this prospectus, we may offer shares of our common stock, various series of debt securities and/or preferred stock, or warrants or rights to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in units, with a total value of up to $100,000,000, from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

·designation or classification;

 

·aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

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·maturity, if applicable;

 

·rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;

 

·redemption, conversion or sinking fund terms, if any;

 

·voting or other rights, if any; and

 

·conversion or exercise prices, if any.

 

The prospectus supplement also may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. However, no prospectus supplement will fundamentally change the terms that are set forth in this prospectus or offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness.

 

We may sell the securities directly to investors or to or through agents, underwriters or dealers. We, and our agents or underwriters, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we offer securities through agents or underwriters, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

·the names of those agents or underwriters;

 

·applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

 

·details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and

 

·the net proceeds to us.

 

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of any securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

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RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves significant risk. The prospectus supplement applicable to each offering of our securities will contain a discussion of the risks applicable to an investment in Eyenovia. Prior to making a decision about investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the specific factors discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in the prospectus supplement or appearing or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should also consider the risks, uncertainties and assumptions discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” included in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as revised or supplemented by our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or our Current Reports on Form 8-K that we have filed with the SEC, all of which are incorporated herein by reference, and which may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our operations. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus include forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), that relate to future events or our future financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Words such as, but not limited to, “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “targets,” “likely,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “continue,” and similar expressions or phrases, or the negative of those expressions or phrases, are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this prospectus and incorporated by reference in this prospectus, we caution you that these statements are based on our projections of the future that are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements, to differ. The sections in our periodic reports, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, entitled “Business,” “Risk Factors,” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” as supplemented by our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and our Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as other sections in this prospectus and the other documents or reports incorporated by reference in this prospectus, discuss some of the factors that could contribute to these differences.

 

You should understand that the following important factors, in addition to those discussed in our periodic reports filed with the SEC under the Exchange Act could affect our future results and could cause those results to differ materially from those expressed in such forward-looking statements:

 

·our need to raise additional money to fund our operations for the next twelve months as a going concern;

 

·our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, timing of any future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

·impacts of and uncertainty related to COVID-19;

 

·fluctuations in our financial results and stock price, particularly given market conditions and the potential economic impact of COVID-19;

 

·our expectations related to the use of proceeds from our financings;

 

·risks of our and our licensees’ clinical trials including, but not limited to, the costs, design, initiation and enrollment (which could be adversely impacted by COVID-19 and resulting social distancing), timing, progress and results of such trials;

 

·the timing and our or our licensees’ ability to submit applications for, obtain and maintain regulatory approval for our product candidates;

 

·reliance on third parties to develop and commercialize certain of our product candidates;

 

·our and our partners’ ability to timely develop, implement and maintain manufacturing, commercialization and marketing capabilities and strategies for certain of our product candidates;

 

·our estimates regarding the potential market opportunity for our product candidates;

 

·the potential advantages of our product candidates and platform technology and potential revenues from licensing transactions;

 

·the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of our product candidates;

 

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·our intellectual property position;

 

·our ability to identify additional products, product candidates or technologies with significant commercial potential that are consistent with our commercial objectives;

 

·our ability to attract and retain key personnel;

 

·the impact of government laws and regulations;

 

·our competitive position;

 

·developments relating to our competitors and our industry;

 

·our ability to maintain and establish collaborations;

 

·general or regional economic conditions;

 

·changes in U.S. GAAP; and

 

·changes in the legal, regulatory and legislative environments in the markets in which we operate, and the impact of these changes on our ability to obtain regulatory approval for our products.

 

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. We have included important cautionary statements in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, particularly in the “Risk Factors” section, that we believe could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make. For a summary of such factors, please refer to the section entitled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus, as updated and supplemented by the discussion of risks and uncertainties under “Risk Factors” contained in any supplements to this prospectus and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as revised or supplemented by our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or our Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as any amendments thereto, as filed with the SEC and which are incorporated herein by reference. The information contained in this document is believed to be current as of the date of this document. We do not intend to update any of the forward-looking statements after the date of this document to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations, except as required by law.

 

In light of these assumptions, risks and uncertainties, the results and events discussed in the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus or in any document incorporated herein by reference might not occur. Investors are cautioned not to place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this prospectus or the date of the document incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We are not under any obligation, and we expressly disclaim any obligation, to update or alter any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. All subsequent forward-looking statements attributable to us or to any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use any net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus for general corporate purposes, including, but not limited to, clinical trials, research and development activities, working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, should we choose to pursue any, and collaborations. We have not determined the amounts we plan to spend on any of the areas listed above or the timing of these expenditures. As a result, our management will have broad discretion to allocate the net proceeds, if any, we receive in connection with securities offered pursuant to this prospectus for any purpose. Pending application of the net proceeds as described above, we may initially invest the net proceeds in short-term, investment-grade or interest-bearing securities.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may offer securities under this prospectus from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We may sell the securities (1) through underwriters or dealers, (2) through agents or (3) directly to one or more purchasers, or through a combination of such methods. We may distribute the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at:

 

·a fixed price or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

·market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

·prices related to the prevailing market prices; or

 

·negotiated prices.

 

We may directly solicit offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus. We may also designate agents to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time, and may enter into arrangements for “at-the-market,” equity line or similar transactions. We will name in a prospectus supplement any underwriter or agent involved in the offer or sale of the securities.

 

If we utilize a dealer in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, we will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale.

 

If we utilize an underwriter in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, we will execute an underwriting agreement with the underwriter at the time of sale, and we will provide the name of any underwriter in the prospectus supplement which the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we, or the purchasers of the securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and the underwriter may compensate those dealers in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions.

 

With respect to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions and block trades, we will provide in the applicable prospectus supplement information regarding any compensation we pay to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments they may be required to make in respect thereof.

 

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters, dealers or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in each applicable prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in each applicable prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

·the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

 

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·if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

 

One or more firms, referred to as “remarketing firms,” may also offer or sell the securities, if a prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with a remarketing arrangement upon their purchase. Remarketing firms will act as principals for their own accounts or as our agents. These remarketing firms will offer or sell the securities in accordance with the terms of the securities. Each prospectus supplement will identify and describe any remarketing firm and the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and will describe the remarketing firm’s compensation. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with the securities they remarket. Remarketing firms may be entitled under agreements that may be entered into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

 

Certain underwriters may use this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement for offers and sales related to market-making transactions in the securities. These underwriters may act as principal or agent in these transactions, and the sales will be made at prices related to prevailing market prices at the time of sale. Any underwriters involved in the sale of the securities may qualify as “underwriters” within the meaning of Section 2(a)(11) of the Securities Act. In addition, the underwriters’ commissions, discounts or concessions may qualify as underwriters’ compensation under the Securities Act and the rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.

 

Shares of our common stock sold pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part will be authorized for listing and trading on The Nasdaq Capital Market. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing, if any, on The Nasdaq Capital Market or any securities market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement. Underwriters may make a market in our common stock, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence, development or maintenance of trading markets for any of the securities.

 

In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over- allotments or short sales of the securities, which involve the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than we sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing the applicable security in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if the securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.

 

The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in other transactions with us, or perform other services for us, in the ordinary course of their business.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

 

We are authorized to issue 90,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share. As of December 10, 2021, we had 28,407,257 shares of common stock outstanding and approximately 35 stockholders of record.

 

The following summary of certain provisions of our common stock does not purport to be complete. You should refer to the section of this prospectus entitled “Certain Provisions of Delaware Law and of the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws” and our third amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended (our “Certificate of Incorporation”), and our amended and restated bylaws (our “Bylaws”), both of which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The summary below is also qualified by provisions of applicable law.

 

General

 

We are authorized to issue one class of common stock. Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share of common stock held of record for the election of directors and on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, except matters that relate only to one or more of the series of our preferred stock, and no holder has cumulative voting rights. Accordingly, the holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they so choose. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends ratably, if any, as may be declared by our board of directors out of legally available funds, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any preferred stock then outstanding. Upon our dissolution, liquidation or winding up, holders of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in our net assets legally available after the payment of all our debts and other liabilities, subject to the preferential rights of any preferred stock then outstanding. Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that are currently designated and issued or that we may designate and issue in the future. Except as described under “Certain Provisions of Delaware Law and of the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws—Anti-Takeover Provisions” below, a majority vote of the holders of common stock is generally required to take action under our Certificate of Incorporation and our Bylaws.

 

Stock Options and Warrants

 

As of December 10, 2021, we had outstanding options to purchase 4,387,051 shares of our common stock at a weighted average price of $3.88 per share under our 2014 Equity Incentive Plan and 2018 Omnibus Stock Incentive Plan. All of our stock options expire 10 years after their grant date.

 

As of December 10, 2021, we had outstanding warrants to purchase 1,217,715 shares of our common stock at exercise prices ranging from $2.47 to $4.76 per share. 1,125,831 warrants will expire on March 24, 2025, and 91,884 warrants will expire on May 6, 2031.

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC, with offices at 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219.

 

Stock Exchange Listing

 

Our common stock is listed for quotation on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “EYEN.”

 

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DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

 

The following description of our preferred stock and the description of the terms of any particular series of preferred stock that we choose to issue hereunder are not complete. These descriptions are qualified in their entirety by reference to our Certificate of Incorporation and the certificate of designation relating to any series of preferred stock issued by us. The rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of the preferred stock of each series will be fixed by the certificate of designation relating to that series.

 

We are authorized, without action by the stockholders, to designate and issue up to an aggregate of 6,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share. As of the date of this prospectus, no shares of our preferred stock were outstanding or designated. The following summary of certain provisions of our preferred stock does not purport to be complete. You should refer to our Certificate of Incorporation and our Bylaws, both of which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The summary below is also qualified by provisions of applicable law.

 

General

 

Our board of directors can designate the rights, preferences and privileges of the shares of each series and any of its qualifications, limitations or restrictions. Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible future financings and acquisitions and other corporate purposes could, under certain circumstances, have the effect of restricting dividends on our common stock, diluting the voting power of our common stock, impairing the liquidation rights of our common stock, or delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our Company, which might harm the market price of our common stock. See also “Certain Provisions of Delaware Law and of the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws—Anti-Takeover Provisions.” Our board of directors will make any determination to issue such shares based on its judgment as to our Company’s best interests and the best interests of our stockholders.

 

If we offer a specific series of preferred stock under this prospectus, we will describe the terms of the preferred stock in the prospectus supplement for such offering and will file a copy of the amended and restated certificate establishing the terms of the preferred stock with the SEC. To the extent required, this description will include:

 

·the maximum number of shares;

 

·the designation of the shares;

 

·the annual dividend rate, if any, whether the dividend rate is fixed or variable, the date or dates on which dividends will accrue, the dividend payment dates, and whether dividends will be cumulative;

 

·the price and the terms and conditions for redemption, if any, including redemption at the option of F-star or at the option of the holders, including the time period for redemption, and any accumulated dividends or premiums;

 

·the liquidation preference, if any, and any accumulated dividends upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

·any sinking fund or similar provision, and, if so, the terms and provisions relating to the purpose and operation of the fund;

 

·the terms and conditions, if any, for conversion or exchange of shares of any other class or classes of our capital stock or any series of any other class or classes, or of any other series of the same class, or any other securities or assets, including the price or the rate of conversion or exchange and the method, if any, of adjustment;

 

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·the voting rights;

 

·any or all other preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights, privileges or qualifications, limitations or restrictions; and

 

·any preferred stock issued will be fully paid and nonassessable upon issuance.

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for any series of preferred stock that is designated by our board of directors will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any future debt securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we so indicate in a prospectus supplement, the terms of any debt securities offered under such prospectus supplement may differ from the terms we describe below, and to the extent the terms set forth in a prospectus supplement differ from the terms described below, the terms set forth in the prospectus supplement shall control.

 

We may sell from time to time, in one or more offerings under this prospectus, debt securities, which may be senior or subordinated. We will issue any such senior debt securities under a senior indenture that we will enter into with a trustee to be named in the senior indenture. We will issue any such subordinated debt securities under a subordinated indenture, which we will enter into with a trustee to be named in the subordinated indenture. We have filed forms of these documents as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part. We use the term “indentures” to refer to either the senior indenture or the subordinated indenture, as applicable. The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as in effect on the date of the indenture. We use the term “debenture trustee” to refer to either the trustee under the senior indenture or the trustee under the subordinated indenture, as applicable.

 

The following summaries of material provisions of the senior debt securities, the subordinated debt securities and the indentures are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities.

 

General

 

Each indenture provides that debt securities may be issued from time to time in one or more series and may be denominated and payable in foreign currencies or units based on or relating to foreign currencies. Neither indenture limits the amount of debt securities that may be issued thereunder, and each indenture provides that the specific terms of any series of debt securities shall be set forth in, or determined pursuant to, an authorizing resolution and/or a supplemental indenture, if any, relating to such series.

 

We will describe in each prospectus supplement the following terms relating to a series of debt securities:

 

·the title or designation;

 

·the aggregate principal amount and any limit on the amount that may be issued;

 

·the currency or units based on or relating to currencies in which debt securities of such series are denominated and the currency or units in which principal or interest or both will or may be payable;

 

·whether we will issue the series of debt securities in global form, the terms of any global securities and who the depositary will be;

 

·the maturity date and the date or dates on which principal will be payable;

 

·the interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the date or dates interest will be payable and the record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

·whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

·the terms of the subordination of any series of subordinated debt;

 

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·the place or places where payments will be payable;

 

·our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

·the date, if any, after which, and the price at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional redemption provisions;

 

·the date, if any, on which, and the price at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities;

 

·whether the indenture will restrict our ability to pay dividends, or will require us to maintain any asset ratios or reserves;

 

·whether we will be restricted from incurring any additional indebtedness;

 

·a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to a series of debt securities;

 

·the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof; and

 

·any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities.

 

We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Conversion or Exchange Rights

 

We will set forth in the prospectus supplement the terms, if any, on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

 

Consolidation, Merger or Sale; No Protection in Event of a Change of Control or Highly Leveraged Transaction

 

The indentures do not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets must assume all of our obligations under the indentures or the debt securities, as appropriate.

 

Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change of control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change of control), which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.

 

Events of Default Under the Indenture

 

The following are events of default under the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

·if we fail to pay interest when due and our failure continues for 90 days and the time for payment has not been extended or deferred;

 

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·if we fail to pay the principal, or premium, if any, when due and the time for payment has not been extended or delayed;

 

·if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant set forth in the debt securities of such series or the applicable indentures, other than a covenant specifically relating to and for the benefit of holders of another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice from the debenture trustee or holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

·if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur as to us.

 

No event of default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an event of default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of an event of default may constitute an event of default under any bank credit agreements we may have in existence from time to time. In addition, the occurrence of certain events of default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain of our other indebtedness outstanding from time to time.

 

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the debenture trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) of and premium and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. Before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained with respect to debt securities of any series, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) may rescind and annul the acceleration if all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the applicable indenture (including payments or deposits in respect of principal, premium or interest that had become due other than as a result of such acceleration). We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an event of default.

 

Subject to the terms of the indentures, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the debenture trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the debenture trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the debenture trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the debenture trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

·the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

·subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the debenture trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

 

A holder of the debt securities of any series will only have the right to institute a proceeding under the indentures or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies if:

 

·the holder previously has given written notice to the debenture trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

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·the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and such holders have offered reasonable indemnity to the debenture trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee; and

 

·the debenture trustee does not institute the proceeding and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series (or at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) other conflicting directions within 60 days after the notice, request and offer.

 

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

 

We will periodically file statements with the applicable debenture trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the applicable indenture.

 

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

 

The debenture trustee and we may change the applicable indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters, including:

 

·to fix any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture; and

 

·to change anything that does not materially adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series issued pursuant to such indenture.

 

In addition, under the indentures, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the debenture trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) that is affected. However, the debenture trustee and we may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

·extending the fixed maturity of the series of debt securities;

 

·reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or any premium payable upon the redemption of any debt securities;

 

·reducing the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;

 

·making the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security; or

 

·reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment or waiver.

 

Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series or in respect of a covenant or provision, which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security of the series affected; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.

 

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Discharge

 

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for obligations to:

 

·register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

·replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

·maintain paying agencies;

 

·hold monies for payment in trust;

 

·compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

·appoint any successor trustee.

 

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged with respect to a series, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, the premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

 

Form, Exchange, and Transfer

 

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indentures provide that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company or another depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement with respect to that series.

 

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

 

Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange or in the applicable indenture, we will make no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

 

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

 

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If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

·issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

·register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

 

Information Concerning the Debenture Trustee

 

The debenture trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under the applicable indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the debenture trustee under such indenture must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the debenture trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indentures at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

 

Payment and Paying Agents

 

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

 

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, will we make interest payments by check which we will mail to the holder. Unless we otherwise indicate in a prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the debenture trustee in the City of New York as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

 

All money we pay to a paying agent or the debenture trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities which remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

 

Governing Law

 

The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

 

Subordination of Subordinated Debt Securities

 

Our obligations pursuant to any subordinated debt securities will be unsecured and will be subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain of our other indebtedness to the extent described in a prospectus supplement. The subordinated indenture does not limit the amount of senior indebtedness we may incur. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

General

 

We may issue warrants to purchase shares of our common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series together with other securities or separately, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Below is a description of certain general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer. Particular terms of the warrants will be described in the warrant agreements and the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will contain, where applicable, the following terms of and other information relating to the warrants:

 

·the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the price at which we will issue, the warrants;

 

·the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

·the designation, amount and terms of the securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

·if applicable, the exercise price for shares of our common stock and the number of shares of common stock to be received upon exercise of the warrants;

 

·if applicable, the exercise price for shares of our preferred stock, the number of shares of preferred stock to be received upon exercise, and a description of that series of our preferred stock;

 

·if applicable, the exercise price for our debt securities, the amount of debt securities to be received upon exercise, and a description of that series of debt securities;

 

·the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;

 

·whether the warrants will be issued in fully registered form or bearer form, in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;

 

·any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;

 

·the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

 

·the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;

 

·if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and the common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities will be separately transferable;

 

·if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

·information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

·the anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, if any;

 

·any redemption or call provisions;

 

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·whether the warrants may be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units; and

 

·any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for any warrants will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

The following description, together with the additional information that we include in any applicable prospectus supplements summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any units that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any units offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below.

 

We will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of unit agreement that describes the terms of the series of units we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of the related series of units. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the units are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the unit agreement and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of units. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the particular series of units that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectuses and the complete unit agreement and any supplemental agreements that contain the terms of the units.

 

General

 

We may issue units consisting of common stock, preferred stock, one or more debt securities, warrants or rights for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series, in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each security included in the unit. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date.

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of units being offered, including:

 

·the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

·any provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described below; and

 

·any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units.

 

The provisions described in this section, as well as those set forth in any prospectus supplement or as described under “Description of Common Stock,” “Description of Preferred Stock,” “Description of Debt Securities,” “Description of Warrants,” and “Description of Rights” will apply to each unit, as applicable, and to any common stock, preferred stock, debt security, warrant or right included in each unit, as applicable.

 

Unit Agent

 

The name and address of the unit agent, if any, for any units we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Issuance in Series

 

We may issue units in such amounts and in such numerous distinct series as we determine.

 

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Units

 

Each unit agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable unit agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any unit. A single bank or trust company may act as unit agent for more than one series of units. A unit agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable unit agreement or unit, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a unit may, without the consent of the related unit agent or the holder of any other unit, enforce by appropriate legal action its rights as holder under any security included in the unit.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

 

General

 

We may issue rights to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock, preferred stock or the other securities described in this prospectus. We may offer rights separately or together with one or more additional rights, debt securities, preferred stock, common stock or warrants, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as rights agent. The rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the certificates relating to the rights of the series of certificates and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders of rights certificates or beneficial owners of rights. The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The particular terms of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions may apply to the rights so offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. To the extent that any particular terms of the rights, rights agreement or rights certificates described in a prospectus supplement differ from any of the terms described below, then the terms described below will be deemed to have been superseded by that prospectus supplement. We encourage you to read the applicable rights agreement and rights certificate for additional information before you decide whether to purchase any of our rights. We will provide in a prospectus supplement the following terms of the rights being issued:

 

·the date of determining the stockholders entitled to the rights distribution;

 

·the aggregate number of shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities purchasable upon exercise of the rights;

 

·the exercise price;

 

·the aggregate number of rights issued;

 

·whether the rights are transferrable and the date, if any, on and after which the rights may be separately transferred;

 

·the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence, and the date on which the right to exercise the rights will expire;

 

·the method by which holders of rights will be entitled to exercise;

 

·the conditions to the completion of the offering, if any;

 

·the withdrawal, termination and cancellation rights, if any;

 

·whether there are any backstop or standby purchaser or purchasers and the terms of their commitment, if any;

 

·whether stockholders are entitled to oversubscription rights, if any;

 

·any applicable material U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

 

·any other terms of the rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the distribution, exchange and exercise of the rights, as applicable.

 

Each right will entitle the holder of rights to purchase for cash the principal amount of shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities at the exercise price provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Rights may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date for the rights provided in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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Holders may exercise rights as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Upon receipt of payment and the rights certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the rights agent or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities, as applicable, purchasable upon exercise of the rights. If less than all of the rights issued in any rights offering are exercised, we may offer any unsubscribed securities directly to persons other than stockholders, to or through agents, underwriters or dealers or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby arrangements, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Rights Agent

 

The rights agent for any rights we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF DELAWARE LAW AND OF THE COMPANY’S CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION AND BYLAWS

 

Anti-Takeover Provisions

 

The provisions of Delaware law, our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws may have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another person from acquiring control of our company.

 

Delaware Law

 

We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (“DGCL”). Subject to certain exceptions, Section 203 prevents a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with any “interested stockholder” for three years following the date that the person became an interested stockholder, unless the interested stockholder attained such status with the approval of our board of directors or unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. A “business combination” includes, among other things, a merger or consolidation involving us and the “interested stockholder” and the sale of more than 10% of our assets. In general, an “interested stockholder” is any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.

 

Board of Directors

 

Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws provide that any or all of the directors may be removed from office at any time, but only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of holders of a majority of the voting power of all then outstanding shares of capital stock of the Corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class; however, whenever the holders of one or more series of the Preferred Stock shall have the right, voting separately by class or series, to elect one or more directors, the term of office, the filling of vacancies, the removal from office and other features of such directorships shall be governed by the terms of such series of the Preferred Stock. Under our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws, any vacancy on our board of directors, including a vacancy resulting from an enlargement of our board of directors, may be filled only by vote of a majority of our directors then in office. Furthermore, our Certificate of Incorporation provides that the authorized number of directors may be changed only by the resolution of our board of directors, subject to the rights of any holders of preferred stock to elect directors. The classification of our board of directors and the limitations on the ability of our stockholders to remove directors, change the authorized number of directors and fill vacancies could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, control of our company.

 

Authorized but Unissued Shares

 

The authorized but unissued shares of common stock and preferred stock are available for future issuance without stockholder approval, subject to any limitations imposed by the listing standards of any exchange on which our shares are listed. These additional shares may be used for a variety of corporate finance transactions, acquisitions and employee benefit plans. The existence of authorized but unissued and unreserved common stock and preferred stock could make more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger or otherwise.

 

Special Meeting of Stockholders; Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals and Director Nominations

 

Special meetings of our stockholders can be called only by the chairman of the Board of Directors, the President, Chief Executive Officer or such other persons designated by the Board of Directors. In addition, stockholders must provide advance notice to nominate persons for election to our Board of Directors or submit proposals for consideration at stockholder meetings.

 

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Amendment of By-laws

 

The General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or by-laws, unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or by-laws, as the case may be, require a greater percentage. Our by-laws may be amended or repealed by a majority vote of our board of directors or the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of the voting power of all then outstanding shares of capital stock of the Corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class, provided however that that no by-laws adopted by the stockholders may invalidate any prior act of the board of directors that would have been valid if such by-laws had not been adopted.

 

Limitation of Liability and Indemnification

 

We are incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware. Section 145 of the DGCL provides that a Delaware corporation may indemnify any persons who are, or are threatened to be made, parties to any threatened, pending, or completed action, suit, or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative, or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of such corporation), by reason of the fact that such person was an officer, director, employee, or agent of such corporation, or is or was serving at the request of such person as an officer, director, employee, or agent of another corporation or enterprise. The indemnity may include expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines, and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such action, suit, or proceeding, provided that such person acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the corporation’s best interests and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe that his or her conduct was illegal. A Delaware corporation may indemnify any person who is, or is threatened to be made, a party to any threatened, pending, or completed action or suit by or in the right of the corporation by reason of the fact that such person was a director, officer, employee, or agent of such corporation, or is or was serving at the request of such corporation as a director, officer, employee, or agent of another corporation or enterprise. The indemnity may include expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit provided such person acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the corporation’s best interests, except that no indemnification is permitted without judicial approval if the officer or director is adjudged to be liable to the corporation. Where an officer or director is successful on the merits or otherwise in the defense of any action referred to above, the corporation must indemnify him or her against the expenses which such officer or director has actually and reasonably incurred. Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws provide for the indemnification of our directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted under the DGCL.

 

Section 102(b)(7) of the DGCL permits a corporation to provide in its certificate of incorporation that a director of the corporation shall not be personally liable to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duties as a director, except for liability for any:

 

  breach of a director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders;

 

  act or omission not in good faith or that involves intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

  unlawful payment of dividends, stock purchase or redemption of shares; or

 

  transaction from which the director derives an improper personal benefit.

 

Our Certificate of Incorporation provides that we will indemnify and hold harmless each person who is or was made a party or is threatened to be made a party to or is otherwise involved in any threatened pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (a "proceeding") by reason of the fact that he or she is or was a director or officer of the Corporation or, while a director or officer of the Corporation, is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, general partner, manager, managing member, employee or agent of another corporation or of a partnership, joint venture, limited liability company, trust, other enterprise or nonprofit entity, including service with respect to an employee benefit plan (an "indemnitee"), whether the basis of such proceeding is alleged action in an official capacity as a director, officer, employee or agent, or in any other capacity while serving as a director, officer, employee or agent, against all liability and loss suffered and expenses (including, without limitation, attorneys' fees, judgments, fines, ERISA excise taxes and penalties and amounts paid in settlement) reasonably incurred by such indemnitee in connection with such proceeding. Our Certificate of Incorporation includes a provision providing for the limitation of liability to the maximum extent permitted under the DGCL. Expenses incurred by any officer or director in defending any proceeding in advance of its final disposition shall be paid by us upon delivery to us of an undertaking by or on behalf of such director or officer, to repay all amounts advanced if it should ultimately be determined that such director or officer is not entitled to be indemnified by us.

 

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Section 174 of the DGCL provides, among other things, that a director, who willfully or negligently approves of an unlawful payment of dividends or an unlawful stock purchase or redemption, may be held liable for such actions. A director who was either absent when the unlawful actions were approved, or dissented at the time, may avoid liability by causing his or her dissent to such actions to be entered on the books containing minutes of the meetings of the board of directors at the time such action occurred or immediately after such absent director receives notice of the unlawful acts.

 

We maintain a directors’ and officers’ liability insurance policy. The policy insures directors and officers against unindemnified losses arising from certain wrongful acts in their capacities as directors and officers and reimburses us for those losses for which we have lawfully indemnified the directors and officers. The policy contains various exclusions.

 

The foregoing discussion of our Certificate of Incorporation, Bylaws, indemnification agreements, indemnity agreement, and Delaware law is not intended to be exhaustive and is qualified in its entirety by our Certificate of Incorporation, Bylaws, indemnification agreements and by applicable law.

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers and controlling persons pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, we have been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.

 

Provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation on Choice of Forum

 

Unless we consent to the selection of an alternative forum, our Certificate of Incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, or the Court of Chancery, will be, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the sole and exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees or agent to the Company or our stockholders; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the DGCL, or our Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws; any action to enforce or determine the validity of our Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws; or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Since the choice of forum provisions are only applicable to “the fullest extent permitted by law”, as provided in our Certificate of Incorporation, the provisions do not designate the Court of Chancery as the exclusive forum for any derivative action or other claim for which the applicable statute creates exclusive jurisdiction in another forum. As such, the choice of forum provisions do not apply to any actions arising under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.

 

We believe the choice of forum provisions in our Certificate of Incorporation may benefit us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law, where permitted, by chancellors and judges particularly experienced in resolving corporate disputes, efficient administration of cases on a more expedited schedule relative to other forums and protection against the burdens of multi-forum litigation. However, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors, officers, employees, and agents as it may limit any stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that such stockholder finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, employees, or agents and result in increased costs for stockholders to bring a claim. The enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ certificates of incorporation has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that, in connection with any applicable action brought against us, a court could find the choice of forum provisions contained in our Certificate of Incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in such action.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

 

Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C., Boston, Massachusetts, will pass upon the validity of the issuance of the securities to be offered by this prospectus.

 

EXPERTS

 

The financial statements of Eyenovia, Inc. as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 and for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2020, have been audited by Marcum LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which includes an explanatory paragraph as to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern, which is incorporated herein by reference. Such financial statements of Eyenovia, Inc. are incorporated in this prospectus by reference in reliance on the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. SEC filings are available at the SEC’s web site at http://www.sec.gov. This prospectus is only part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the SEC under the Securities Act and therefore omits certain information contained in the registration statement. We have also filed exhibits and schedules with the registration statement that are excluded from this prospectus, and you should refer to the applicable exhibit or schedule for a complete description of any statement referring to any contract or other document.

 

We also maintain a website at http://www.eyenovia.com, through which you can access our SEC filings. The information set forth on our website is not part of this prospectus.

 

INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with them. Incorporation by reference allows us to disclose important information to you by referring you to those other documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We filed a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act, with the SEC with respect to the securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. This prospectus omits certain information contained in the registration statement, as permitted by the SEC. You should refer to the registration statement, including the exhibits, for further information about us and the securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. Statements in this prospectus regarding the provisions of certain documents filed with, or incorporated by reference in, the registration statement are not necessarily complete and each statement is qualified in all respects by that reference. Copies of all or any part of the registration statement, including the documents incorporated by reference or the exhibits, may be accessed on the SEC website as noted above in “Where You Can Find More Information.” The documents we are incorporating by reference are:

 

·our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 that we filed with the SEC on March 30, 2021;

 

·the portions of our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A filed on April 30, 2021 that are deemed “filed” with the SEC under the Exchange Act;

 

·our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarters ended June 30, 2021, March 31, 2021 and September 30, 2021 that we filed with the SEC on August 12, 2021, May 14, 2021 and November 12, 2021, respectively;

 

·our Current Reports on Form 8-K that we filed with the SEC on February 3, 2021, March 2, 2021, March 15, 2021, April 1, 2021, May 5, 2021, May 10, 2021, May 14, 2021, May 25, 2021, June 15, 2021, June 16, 2021, June 21, 2021, August 11, 2021, September 15, 2021, October 25, 2021, November 5, 2021, November 10, 2021, December 3, 2021, and December 6, 2021 (except for the information furnished under Items 2.02 or 7.01 and the exhibits furnished thereto);

 

·the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on January 24, 2018, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description; and

 

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·all reports and other documents subsequently filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination or completion of the offering of securities under this prospectus shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and to be a part hereof from the date of filing such reports and other documents.

 

The SEC file number for each of the documents listed above is 001-38365.

 

In addition, all reports and other documents filed by us pursuant to the Exchange Act after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

Any statement contained in this prospectus or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

You may request, orally or in writing, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated herein by reference. These documents will be provided to you at no cost, by contacting:

 

Eyenovia, Inc.

295 Madison Avenue

Suite 2400

New York, NY 10017

Attn: Corporate Secretary.

(917) 289-1117

 

You may also access these documents on our website, http://www.eyenovia.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

 

You should rely only on information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We are not making offers to sell the securities in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making such offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation.

 

31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

$100,000,000

 

 

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Rights

Units

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

             , 2021

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED DECEMBER 14, 2021

 

THE INFORMATION IN THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT COMPLETE AND MAY BE CHANGED. WE MAY NOT SELL THESE SECURITIES UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT FILED WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION IS EFFECTIVE. THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT AN OFFER TO SELL THESE SECURITIES AND IS NOT SOLICITING AN OFFER TO BUY THESE SECURITIES IN ANY STATE WHERE THE OFFER OR SALE IS NOT PERMITTED.

 

PROSPECTUS

 

Up to $50,000,000

 

 

 

Common Stock

 

We have entered into an open market sales agreement, the Sales Agreement, with SVB Leerink LLC, or SVB Leerink, relating to the sale of shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the Sales Agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000 from time to time through or to SVB Leerink, acting as our agent.

 

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “EYEN”. On December 10, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market was $3.76 per share.

 

Sales of the common stock, if any, under this prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. SVB Leerink is not required to sell any specific amount of securities, but will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between SVB Leerink and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

The compensation to SVB Leerink for sales of our common stock will be 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page S-15 for additional information regarding the compensation to be paid to SVB Leerink. In connection with the sale of the common shares on our behalf, SVB Leerink will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of SVB Leerink will be deemed to be underwriting commissions. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to SVB Leerink with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

We are an “emerging growth company” and a “smaller reporting company” under applicable Securities and Exchange Commission rules and are subject to reduced public company reporting requirements for this prospectus and future filings.

 

INVESTING IN OUR COMMON STOCK INVOLVES A HIGH DEGREE OF RISK. YOU SHOULD REVIEW CAREFULLY THE RISKS AND UNCERTAINTIES DESCRIBED UNDER THE HEADING “RISK FACTORS” ON PAGE S-8 OF THIS PROSPECTUS, AND UNDER SIMILAR HEADINGS IN THE DOCUMENTS THAT ARE INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE INTO THIS PROSPECTUS.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus are truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

SVB Leerink

 

Prospectus dated                                    , 2021

 

  

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS S-1
   
INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA S-2
   
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY S-3
   
THE OFFERING S-7
   
RISK FACTORS S-8
   
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS S-10
   
USE OF PROCEEDS S-12
   
UNAUDITED PRO FORMA FINANCIAL INFORMATION S-13
   
DILUTION S-14
   
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION S-16
   
LEGAL MATTERS S-17
   
EXPERTS S-17
   
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION S-17
   
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE S-18

 

  

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000 under this prospectus at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering.

 

Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus and all of the information incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as the additional information described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Documents by Reference.” These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

 

To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference in this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

 

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We have not, and SVB Leerink has not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. This prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

 

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in the prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

 

Unless the context otherwise requires, “Eyenovia,” “the Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to Eyenovia, Inc. and our subsidiaries.

 

S-1

 

 

INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA

 

We obtained the industry, statistical and market data in this prospectus from our own internal estimates and research, as well as from industry and general publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. In presenting this information, we have made assumptions based on such data and other similar sources, and on our knowledge of, and our experience to date in, the potential markets for our product candidates. Although we believe the data from these third-party sources is reliable and are responsible for the accuracy of such data, we have not independently verified any third-party information. The industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the section entitled “Risk Factors”. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by third parties and by us.

 

S-2

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

The following is a summary of what we believe to be the most important aspects of our business and the offering of our securities under this prospectus. We urge you to read this entire prospectus, including the more detailed consolidated financial statements, notes to the consolidated financial statements and other information incorporated by reference from our other filings with the SEC. Investing in our securities involves risks. Therefore, carefully consider the risk factors set forth in our most recent annual and quarterly filings with the SEC, as well as other information in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein, before purchasing our securities. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities.

 

About Eyenovia, Inc.

 

We are a clinical stage ophthalmic biopharmaceutical company developing a pipeline of advanced therapeutics based on our proprietary microdose array print (MAP™) therapeutics. We aim to achieve clinical microdosing of next-generation formulations of well-established ophthalmic pharmaceutical agents using our high-precision targeted ocular delivery system, branded the Optejet® which has the potential to replace conventional eye dropper delivery and improve safety, tolerability, patient compliance and topical delivery success for ophthalmic eye treatments. In the clinic, the Optejet has demonstrated the ability to horizontally deliver ophthalmic medication with a success rate significantly higher than that of traditional eye drops (~ 90% vs. ~ 50%). Our technology is designed to achieve single-digit µl-volume physiologic drug delivery with up to a 75% reduction in ocular drug and preservative topical dosing and has demonstrated significant improvement in the therapeutic index in drugs used for mydriasis and IOP lowering through three Phase II and Phase III trials. Conventional eye formulations lack high-precision micro-volume delivery and expose the ocular surface to approximately 300% more medication and preservatives than are physiologically indicated leading to clinically recognized ocular and non-ocular side effects. Using the Optejet, we are developing the next generation of smart ophthalmic therapeutics which target new indications or new combinations where there are currently no comparable drug therapies approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, (the “FDA”). Our microdose therapeutics follow the FDA-designated pharmaceutical registration and regulatory process. Consistent with the recent FDA reclassification of MydCombi, we believe that most of our product candidates are, or will be, classified by the FDA as drug-led combination products.

 

Our pipeline is currently focused on the late-stage development of novel, potential first-in-class therapeutic indications for over an estimated five million potential patients with progressive myopia in the United States and over an estimated one hundred million potential patients with age-related near vision impairment, or presbyopia - indications where there is tremendous unmet need and no known existing FDA-approved therapies. We are also developing the first microdose fixed combination ophthalmic pharmaceutical for mydriasis to address the estimated over 100 million annual comprehensive eye exams with pupil dilation.

 

MicroPine is our investigational first-in-class topical therapy for the treatment of progressive myopia, a back-of-the-eye ocular disease associated with pathologic axial elongation and sclero-retinal stretching. In the United States, myopia is estimated to affect approximately 25 million children, with up to five million considered to be at risk for high myopia. In February 2019, the FDA accepted our investigational new drug application, or IND, to initiate a Phase III registration trial of MicroPine (the CHAPERONE study) to reduce the progression of myopia in children. We enrolled the first patient in the CHAPERONE study in June 2019. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we experienced delays in trial enrollment and initiation as a result of reduced clinical trial activities and operations at investigator sites during the first half of 2020. However, we have since been able to resume enrollment in the CHAPERONE study at a slower pace than initially planned.

 

On October 9, 2020, we entered into a License Agreement (the “Bausch License Agreement”) with a subsidiary of Bausch Health Companies Inc. (“Bausch Health”) pursuant to which Bausch Health may develop and commercialize MicroPine in the United States and Canada. Under the terms of the Bausch License Agreement, we received an upfront payment of $10.0 million and we may receive up to a total of $35.0 million in additional payments, based on the achievement of certain regulatory and launch-based milestones. Bausch Health also will pay us royalties on a tiered basis (ranging from mid-single digit to mid-teen percentages) on gross profits from sales of MicroPine in the United States and Canada, subject to certain adjustments. Under the terms of the Bausch License Agreement, Bausch Health is in the process of assuming oversight for, and has assumed the costs related to the ongoing CHAPERONE study.

 

S-3

 

 

MicroLine is our investigational pharmacologic treatment for presbyopia. Presbyopia is a non-preventable, age-related hardening of the lens, which causes the gradual loss of the eye’s ability to focus at near and impairs near visual acuity. There currently are no known FDA-approved drugs for the improvement of near vision in patients with presbyopia, although other companies have related therapies in their pipeline. We have two planned Phase III VISION trials for MicroLine, and initiated the first of these trials in December 2020. On May 25, 2021, we announced positive topline data from the Phase III VISION-1 study evaluating MicroLine for the temporary improvement of near vision in adults with presbyopia. The study achieved its primary endpoint and the Company recently initiated VISION -2, a second Phase III registration study. VISION-2, is a double-masked, placebo-controlled, cross-over superiority trial designed to enroll 120 patients randomized between 2% pilocarpine and placebo cohorts. Topline data from VISION-2 is anticipated in mid-2022. These studies will serve as the basis for a planned New Drug Application (NDA) submission to FDA. VISION-1 results will be presented at a future ophthalmic-focused medical meeting.

 

On August 10, 2020, we entered into a License Agreement (the “Arctic Vision License Agreement”) with Arctic Vision (Hong Kong) Limited (“Arctic Vision”), pursuant to which Arctic Vision may develop and commercialize MicroPine and MicroLine in Greater China (mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan) and South Korea. Under the terms of the Arctic Vision License Agreement, we received an upfront payment of $4.0 million before any payments to Senju Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (“Senju”). In addition, we may receive up to a total of $43.75 million in additional payments, based on various development and regulatory milestones, including the initiation of clinical research and approvals in Greater China and South Korea, and development costs. Milestone revenue includes $2.0 million related to the MicroStat product resulting from Amendment 1 to the Arctic Vision License Agreement between the Company and Arctic Vision which was executed on September 14, 2021. Arctic Vision also will purchase its supply of MicroPine, MicroLine and MicroStat from us or, for such products not supplied by us, pay us a mid-single digit percentage royalty on net sales of such products, subject to certain adjustments. We will pay a mid-double digit percentage of such payments, royalties, or net proceeds of such supply to Senju pursuant to the Exclusive License Agreement with Senju dated March 8, 2015, as amended by the License Amendment dated April 8, 2020, and a Letter Agreement dated August 10, 2020 (the “Senju License Agreement”).

 

The Senju License Agreement was amended further by the License Amendment 2, effective September 14, 2021 (the “Amendment 2”). The Amendment 2 excludes Greater China and South Korea from the territory in which Senju was granted an exclusive royalty-bearing license from the Company. In consideration for this exclusion, and upon and after the execution of Amendment 1 with Arctic Vision, the Company must make payments to Senju based on non-royalty license revenue and sales revenue, including a one-time upfront payment of $250,000 which represented an inducement to Senju to approve Amendment 1 of the Arctic Vision License Agreement related to the MicroStat Product. This upfront payment to Senju was in addition to and separate from the previously established 40% payment on milestone revenue.

 

MydCombi™ (or MicroStat) is our fixed combination formulation of phenylephrine-tropicamide for mydriasis, designed to be a novel approach for the estimated over one hundred million office-based comprehensive and diabetic eye exams performed every year in the United States. We have completed two Phase III trials for MydCombi and announced positive results from these studies, known as MIST-1 and MIST-2. In March 2021, the FDA accepted our NDA, for MydCombi for use to achieve mydriasis in routine diagnostic procedures and in conditions where short-term pupil dilation is desired. On October 25, 2021, the Company announced the reclassification of the Company’s proprietary, first-in-class combination microdose formulation of tropicamide and phenylephrine for in-office pupil dilation, MydCombi, as a drug-device combination product by the FDA in a Complete Response Letter (“CRL”) received on October 22, 2021, following a change in the agency’s legal interpretation of its authorities imposed by a recent court ruling. The Company is preparing the necessary documents for expedited resubmission of the new drug application for MydCombi in response to the CRL.

 

We have not received U.S. marketing approval for any product candidate and we have therefore not generated any revenues from product sales.

 

S-4

 

 

Additional Information

 

For additional information related to our business and operations, please refer to the reports incorporated herein by reference, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as described under the caption “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference” on page S-17 of this prospectus.

 

Impact of COVID-19

 

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic and recommended containment and mitigation measures worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic has been evolving, and to date has led to the implementation of various responses, including government-imposed quarantines, travel restrictions and other public health safety measures.

 

Management continues to closely monitor the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on all aspects of the business, including how it will impact operations and the operations of customers, vendors, and business partners. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have experienced delays in trial enrollment and initiation as a result of reduced clinical trial activities and operations at investigator sites. However, we have since been able to resume operations largely as they were prior to the pandemic. The extent to which COVID-19 impacts the future business, results of operation and financial condition will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence at this time, such as the continued duration of the outbreak, new information that may emerge concerning the severity or other strains of COVID-19 or the effectiveness of actions to contain COVID-19 or treat its impact, among others. If we or any of the third parties with which we engage, however, were to experience shutdowns or other business disruptions, the ability to conduct our business in the manner and on the timelines presently planned could be materially and negatively affected, which could have a material adverse impact on business, results of operation and financial condition. The estimates of the impact on the Company’s business may change based on new information that may emerge concerning COVID-19 and the actions to contain it or treat its impact and the economic impact on local, regional, national, and international markets.

 

Our Corporate Information

 

We were organized as a corporation under the laws of the State of Florida on March 12, 2014 under the name “PGP Holdings V, Inc.” On May 5, 2014, we changed our name to Eyenovia, Inc. On October 6, 2014, we reincorporated in the State of Delaware by merging into Eyenovia, Inc., a Delaware corporation. Our principal executive office is located at 295 Madison Avenue, Suite 2400, New York, NY 10017, and our telephone number is 917-289-1117. We maintain a website at http://www.eyenovia.com, to which we regularly post copies of our press releases as well as additional information about us. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

 

All brand names or trademarks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective holders. Use or display by us of other parties’ trademarks, trade dress, or products in this prospectus is not intended to, and does not, imply a relationship with, or endorsements or sponsorship of, us by the trademark or trade dress owners.

 

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

 

As a company with less than $1.07 billion in revenue during our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we are permitted and intend to rely on exemptions from specified disclosure requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These exemptions include:

 

·being permitted to provide only two years of audited financial statements, in addition to any required unaudited interim financial statements, with correspondingly reduced “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” disclosure;

 

S-5

 

 

·not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting;

 

·not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements;

 

·reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation; and

 

·exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.

 

We may take advantage of these provisions through 2023 or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. We would cease to be an emerging growth company if we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenues, have more than $700 million in market value of our capital stock held by non-affiliates, or issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period. We may choose to take advantage of some, but not all, of the available exemptions. We have taken advantage of some reduced reporting burdens in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, the information contained herein may be different than the information you receive from other public companies in which you hold stock.

 

In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This provision allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of some accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected to avail ourselves of this exemption from new or revised accounting standards and, therefore, will not be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

 

We are also a “smaller reporting company” as defined under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. We may continue to be a smaller reporting company so long as either (i) the market value of shares of our common stock held by non-affiliates is less than $250 million or (ii) our annual revenue was less than $100 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and the market value of shares of our common stock held by non-affiliates is less than $700 million. If we are a smaller reporting company at the time we cease to be an emerging growth company, we may continue to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are available to smaller reporting companies. Specifically, as a smaller reporting company, we may choose to present only the two most recent fiscal years of audited financial statements in our Annual Report on Form 10-K and have reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation, and, similar to emerging growth companies, if we are a smaller reporting company under the requirements of (ii) above, we would not be required to obtain an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm.

 

S-6

 

 

THE OFFERING

 

Shares of common stock offered by us:   Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000.  
     
Shares of common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering:     Up to 41,705,129 shares, assuming sales of 13,297,872 shares of common stock are made in this offering at an offering price of $3.76 per share, which was the last reported sale price of shares of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market on December 10, 2021. The actual number of shares that may be issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.  
     
Manner of offering:   “At the market offering” that may be made from time to time on The Nasdaq Capital Market or other existing trading market for shares of our common stock through or to, SVB Leerink. See the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” on page S-15 of this prospectus.  
     
Use of proceeds:   We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering for working capital and general corporate purposes. See the section titled “Use of Proceeds” on page S-12 of this prospectus.  
     
Risk factors:   Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-8 of this prospectus and the other information included in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus for a discussion of certain factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock.  
     
The Nasdaq Capital Market symbol:     EYEN

 

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding following this offering is based on 28,407,257 shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 10, 2021 and excludes:

 

·4,387,051 shares of our common stock underlying outstanding options to purchase common stock under our 2014 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2014 Plan”) and our Amended and Restated 2018 Omnibus Stock Incentive Plan (the “2018 Plan”) with a weighted average exercise price of  $3.88 per share;

 

·154,047 shares of our common stock issuable in connection with restricted stock units under our 2014 Plan and 2018 Plan;

 

·684,125 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2014 Plan and 2018 Plan; and

 

·warrants for 1,217,715 shares of our common stock, with a weighted average exercise price of $2.69 per share.

 

Unless otherwise noted, the information in this prospectus reflects and assumes no exercise of outstanding options and warrants.

 

S-7

 

 

RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties, as well as other information, in this prospectus, including the risks described under “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 which is incorporated herein by reference, and as updated by any other document that we subsequently file with the SEC and that is incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. The risks set forth in this prospectus and incorporated herein by reference are those which we believe are the material risks that we face. These risks are not the only ones facing us and there may be additional matters that we are unaware of or that we currently consider immaterial. The occurrence of any of such risks may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and future prospects. In such an event, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.

 

Risks Related to this Offering

 

You may experience immediate and substantial dilution.

 

The offering price per share being offered may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 13,297,872 shares of our common stock are sold during the term of the Sales Agreement with SVB Leerink at a price of $3.76 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market on December 10, 2021, the aggregate gross proceeds will be $50.0 million. After deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, you will experience immediate dilution of $2.20 per share, representing the difference between our pro forma, as-adjusted net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2021, after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price. The exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants may result in further dilution of your investment. See the section entitled “Dilution” below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering.

 

We may be required to raise additional capital by issuing new securities with terms or rights superior to those of our existing securityholders, which could adversely affect your investment in our company, the market price of shares of our common stock and our business.

 

We might require additional financing to fund future operations, including our research and development, manufacturing and any possible sales and marketing activities. We may not be able to obtain financing on favorable terms, if at all. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities, the percentage ownership of our then current stockholders will be reduced, and the holders of the new equity securities may have rights superior to those of our then existing securityholders, which could adversely affect the market price of our common stock and the voting power of shares of our common stock. If we raise additional funds by issuing debt securities, the holders of these debt securities would similarly have some rights senior to those of our then existing securityholders, and the terms of these debt securities could impose restrictions on operations and create a significant interest expense for us which could have a materially adverse effect on our business.

 

Sales of our common stock in this offering, or the perception that such sales may occur, could cause the market price of our common stock to fall.

 

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock for aggregate gross proceeds of up to $50,000,000 from time to time in connection with this offering. The actual number of shares of common stock that may be issued and sold in this offering, as well as the timing of any such sales, will depend on a number of factors, including, among others, the prices at which any shares are actually sold in this offering (which may be influenced by market conditions, the trading price of our common stock and other factors) and our determinations as to the appropriate timing, sources and amounts of funding we need. The issuance and sale from time to time of these new shares of common stock, or the mere fact that we are able to issue and sell these shares in this offering, could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.

 

S-8

 

 

It is not possible to predict the actual number of shares of common stock we will sell under the Sales Agreement, or the gross proceeds resulting from those sales.

 

Subject to certain limitations in the Sales Agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a placement notice to SVB Leerink at any time throughout the term of the Sales Agreement. The number of shares that are sold through SVB Leerink after the delivery of a placement notice will fluctuate based on a number of factors, including the market price of our common stock during the sales period, the limits we set with SVB Leerink in any applicable placement notice, and the demand for our common stock during the sales period. Because the price per share will fluctuate during this offering, it is not currently possible to predict the number of shares that will be sold or the gross proceeds to be raised in connection with those sales.

 

The common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at-the-market offerings” and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

 

Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and accordingly may experience different levels of dilution and different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices and number of shares sold in this offering. Investors may experience a decline in the value of the shares they purchase in this offering as a result of sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.

 

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.

 

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could spend the proceeds in ways that do not improve our business, financial condition or results of operations or enhance the value of our common stock. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-12 of this prospectus for a description of our proposed use of proceeds from this offering.

 

The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could result in financial losses that could harm our business, cause the price of our common stock to decline and delay the development of our product candidates. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value.

 

We might not be able to continue as a going concern which would likely cause our stockholders to lose most or all of their investment.

 

Our audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2020 and our unaudited financial statements for the quarter ended September 30, 2021 were prepared under the assumption that we would continue as a going concern. However, our independent registered public accounting firm included a “going concern” explanatory paragraph in its report on our financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2020, indicating that, without additional sources of funding, our cash at December 31, 2020 is not sufficient for us to operate as a going concern for a period of at least one year from the date that the financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K are issued. Management’s plans concerning these matters, including our need to raise additional capital, are described in Note 2 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies — Liquidity and Going Concern of our financial statements included within our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2021, however, management cannot assure you that its plans will be successful. In light of the foregoing, there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. If we cannot continue as a viable entity, our stockholders would likely lose most or all of their investment in us.

 

S-9

 

 

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus contains a number of forward-looking statements. Specifically, all statements other than statements of historical facts included in this prospectus, or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, regarding our financial position, business strategy, development timelines and plans and objectives of management for future operations are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are based on the beliefs of management at the time these statements were made, as well as assumptions made by and information currently available to management. When used in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, the words “anticipate”, “believe”, “estimate”, “expect”, “may”, “will”, “continue” and “intend”, and words or phrases of similar import are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions related to various factors.

 

You should understand that the following important factors, in addition to those discussed in our periodic reports filed with the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), could affect our future results and could cause those results to differ materially from those expressed in such forward-looking statements:

 

·our need to raise additional money to fund our operations for the next twelve months as a going concern;

 

·our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, timing of any future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

·impacts of and uncertainty related to COVID-19;

 

·fluctuations in our financial results and stock price, particularly given market conditions and the potential economic impact of COVID-19;

 

·our expectations related to the use of proceeds from our financings;

 

·risks of our and our licensees’ clinical trials including, but not limited to, the costs, design, initiation and enrollment (which could be adversely impacted by COVID-19 and resulting social distancing), timing, progress and results of such trials;

 

·the timing and our or our licensees’ ability to submit applications for, obtain and maintain regulatory approval for our product candidates;

 

·reliance on third parties to develop and commercialize certain of our product candidates;

 

·our and our partners’ ability to timely develop, implement and maintain manufacturing, commercialization and marketing capabilities and strategies for certain of our product candidates;

 

·our estimates regarding the potential market opportunity for our product candidates;

 

·the potential advantages of our product candidates and platform technology and potential revenues from licensing transactions;

 

·the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of our product candidates;

 

·our intellectual property position;

 

·our ability to identify additional products, product candidates or technologies with significant commercial potential that are consistent with our commercial objectives;

 

·our ability to attract and retain key personnel;

 

S-10

 

 

·the impact of government laws and regulations;

 

·our competitive position;

 

·developments relating to our competitors and our industry;

 

·our ability to maintain and establish collaborations;

 

·general or regional economic conditions;

 

·changes in U.S. GAAP; and

 

·changes in the legal, regulatory and legislative environments in the markets in which we operate, and the impact of these changes on our ability to obtain regulatory approval for our products.

 

Although we believe that our expectations (including those on which our forward-looking statements are based) are reasonable, we cannot assure you that those expectations will prove to be correct. Should any one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should any underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those described in our forward-looking statements as anticipated, believed, estimated, expected or intended.

 

Except for our ongoing obligations to disclose material information under the federal securities laws, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or any other reason.

 

All subsequent forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to herein. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events discussed in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein might not occur.

 

S-11

 

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We may issue and sell up to $50,000,000 of our common stock from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. There can be no assurance that we will sell any shares under or fully utilize the Sales Agreement with SVB Leerink as a source of financing.

 

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, for working capital and general corporate purposes.

 

As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty any of the particular uses of the proceeds, if any, from this offering. Accordingly, we will retain broad discretion over the use of any such proceeds. Pending the use of the net proceeds, if any, from this offering as described above, we intend to invest the net proceeds in investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments.

 

S-12

 

 

UNAUDITED PRO FORMA FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

Between October 6, 2021 and November 10, 2021, the Company sold 2,435,604 shares of common stock for gross proceeds of approximately $12.8 million and net proceeds of approximately $12.4 million, pursuant to an at-the-market offering (the “Transactions”). The following unaudited pro forma balance sheet as of September 30, 2021 gives effect to the Transactions, as if the Transactions were consummated on September 30, 2021.

 

The unaudited pro forma balance sheet should be read in conjunction with our historical consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in the Annual Report and Quarterly Reports which are incorporated by reference herein. See “Incorporation of Documents By Reference.” The unaudited pro forma balance sheet may not be useful in predicting the future financial condition and results of operations of our company. The actual financial condition and results of operations of our company may differ significantly from the pro forma amounts reflected herein due to a variety of factors.

 

   (unaudited) 
       Net Proceeds     
   September 30,   from the     
   2021   Transactions [1]   Total 
             
Assets               
                
Current Assets:               
Cash and cash equivalents  $13,500,871   $12,401,918   $25,902,789 
Restricted cash   7,875,000    -    7,875,000 
License fee and expense reimbursements receivables   960,180    -    960,180 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets   1,123,289    -    1,123,289 
                
Total Current Assets   23,459,340    12,401,918    35,861,258 
                
Property and equipment, net   1,413,201    -    1,413,201 
Security deposit   119,035    -    119,035 
                
Total Assets  $24,991,576   $12,401,918   $37,393,494 
                
Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity               
                
Current Liabilities:               
Accounts payable  $1,684,733   $-   $1,684,733 
Accrued compensation   1,184,236    -    1,184,236 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities   552,336    -    552,336 
Deferred rent - current portion   16,037    -    16,037 
Deferred license fee   10,000,000    -    10,000,000 
Notes payable - current portion   7,282,037    -    7,282,037 
                
Total Current Liabilities   20,719,379    -    20,719,379 
                
Deferred rent - non-current portion   26,059    -    26,059 
                
Total Liabilities   20,745,438    -    20,745,438 
                
Commitments and contingencies               
                
Stockholders' Equity:               
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value, 6,000,000 shares authorized               
Common stock, $0.0001 par value, 90,000,000 shares authorized   2,597    244    2,841 
Additional paid-in capital   97,446,125    12,401,674    109,847,799 
Accumulated deficit   (93,202,584)   -    (93,202,584)
                
Total Stockholders' Equity   4,246,138    12,401,918    16,648,056 
                
Total Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity  $24,991,576   $12,401,918   $37,393,494 

 

[1]Represents the sale of 2,435,604 shares of common stock for gross proceeds of approximately $12.8 million and net proceeds of approximately $12.4 million, pursuant to the Transactions.

 

S-13

 

 

DILUTION

 

Dilution to purchasers in this offering represents the difference between the amount per share of common stock paid by purchasers of shares of common stock in this offering and the pro forma, as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering. The data in this section are derived from our balance sheet as of September 30, 2021. Net tangible book value per share of common stock is equal to our total tangible assets less the amount of our total liabilities, divided by the sum of the number of shares of common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2021. Our net tangible book value as of September 30, 2021 was $4.2 million, or $0.16 per share of common stock.

 

Pro forma net tangible book value per share of common stock is equal to our net tangible book value as of September 30, 2021, plus the impact of the sales of 2,435,604 shares of our common stock after September 30, 2021 pursuant to at-the-market offerings of our common stock pursuant to which we generated net proceeds of $12.4 million. Our pro forma net tangible book value as of September 30, 2021 was $16.6 million, or $0.58 per share of common stock.

 

We present dilution on a pro forma, as adjusted basis to give effect to the sale by us of shares of our common stock in this offering in the aggregate amount of $50.0 million, at an assumed public offering price of $3.76 per share of common stock, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market on December 10, 2021, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Our pro forma, as adjusted net tangible book value as of September 30, 2021 would have been $65.0 million, or $1.56 per share of common stock. This offering represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value to existing stockholders of $0.98 per share of common stock and immediate dilution in net tangible book value to purchasers of shares of common stock in this offering of $2.20 per share of common stock. The following table illustrates this dilution per share of common stock:

 

Assumed public offering price per share $ 3.76
Historical net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2021 $ 0.16
Pro forma increase in net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2021     $ 0.42    
Pro forma net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2021.     $ 0.58    
Increase in pro forma net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering $ 0.98
Pro forma, as adjusted tangible book value per share, after giving effect to this offering $ 1.56
Dilution per share to investors in this offering $ 2.20

 

 

The above discussion and tables are based on 25,963,185 shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2021 and excludes:

 

·4,305,980 shares of our common stock underlying outstanding options to purchase common stock under our 2014 Plan and our 2018 Plan with a weighted average exercise price of  $3.89 per share;

 

·105,306 shares of our common stock issuable in connection with restricted stock units under our 2014 Plan and 2018 Plan;

 

·813,937 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2014 Plan and 2018 Plan; and

 

·warrants for 1,226,183 shares of our common stock, with a weighted average exercise price of $2.69 per share.

 

To the extent that any of these options or warrants are exercised, new options are issued under our 2018 Plan or we issue additional shares of common stock, warrants or other equity securities in the future, there may be further dilution to investors participating in this offering.

 

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 13,297,872 shares of our common stock are sold during the term of the Sales Agreement with the agent at a price of $3.76 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on December 10, 2021, for aggregate gross proceeds of $50,000,000. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $0.25 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $3.76 per share, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $50,000,000 during the term of the Sales Agreement with the agent is sold at that price, would increase our pro forma, adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $1.59 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $2.42 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $0.25 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $3.76 per share, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $50,000,000 is sold at that price, would decrease our pro forma, adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $1.52 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $1.99 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only.

 

S-14

 

 

We may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities may result in further dilution to our shareholders. To the extent that outstanding options or warrants outstanding as of September 30, 2021 have been or may be exercised or other shares issued, investors purchasing our common stock in this offering may experience further dilution.

 

S-15

 

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We have entered into a Sales Agreement with SVB Leerink under which we may issue and sell shares of common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000 from time to time through SVB Leerink as our sales agent. Sales of shares of common stock, if any, under this prospectus will be made at market prices by any method that is deemed to be an “at-the-market” offering, as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on the Nasdaq Capital Market or any other trading market for our common stock. If authorized by us in writing, SVB Leerink may purchase shares of our common stock as principal.

 

SVB Leerink will offer shares of our common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement on a daily basis or as otherwise agreed upon by us and SVB Leerink. We will designate the maximum amount of common stock to be sold through SVB Leerink on a daily basis or otherwise determine such maximum amount together with SVB Leerink. Subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, SVB Leerink will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us. We may instruct SVB Leerink not to sell shares of common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. SVB Leerink or we may suspend the offering of shares of our common stock being made through SVB Leerink under the Sales Agreement upon proper notice to the other party. SVB Leerink and we each have the right, by giving written notice as specified in the Sales Agreement, to terminate the Sales Agreement in each party’s sole discretion at any time. The offering of shares of our common stock pursuant to the Sales Agreement will otherwise terminate upon the termination of the Sales Agreement as provided therein.

 

The aggregate compensation payable to SVB Leerink as sales agent will be an amount equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds of any shares sold through it pursuant to the Sales Agreement. We have also agreed to reimburse SVB Leerink up to $75,000 of SVB Leerink’s actual outside legal expenses incurred by SVB Leerink in connection with this offering. We have also agreed to reimburse SVB Leerink for certain ongoing fees of its legal counsel. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding commissions payable to SVB Leerink under the Sales Agreement, will be approximately $150,000.

 

SVB Leerink will provide written confirmation to us following the close of trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market on each day in which shares of common stock are sold through it as sales agent under the Sales Agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of common stock sold through it as sales agent on that day, the volume weighted average price of the shares of common stock sold, the percentage of the daily trading volume and the net proceeds to us.

 

Settlement for sales of shares of common stock will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise, on the second business day that is also a trading day following the date on which any sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through SVB Leerink under the Sales Agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to SVB Leerink in connection with the sales of shares of common stock during the relevant period.

 

In connection with the sales of shares of common stock on our behalf, SVB Leerink may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to SVB Leerink may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed in the Sales Agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to SVB Leerink against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. As sales agent, SVB Leerink will not engage in any transactions that stabilize our common stock.

 

S-16

 

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

The validity of the securities being offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky & Popeo, P.C. Goodwin Procter LLP, New York, New York, is representing the agent in connection with the offering.  

 

EXPERTS

 

The financial statements of Eyenovia, Inc. as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 and for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2020, have been audited by Marcum LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which includes an explanatory paragraph as to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern, which is incorporated herein by reference. Such financial statements of Eyenovia, Inc. are incorporated in this prospectus by reference in reliance on the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

This prospectus, which constitutes a part of the registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the SEC under the Securities Act, does not contain all of the information in the registration statement and its exhibits. For further information with respect to us and the securities offered by this prospectus, you should refer to the registration statement and the exhibits filed as part of that document. Statements contained in this prospectus as to the contents of any contract or any other document referred to are not necessarily complete, and in each instance, we refer you to the copy of the contract or other document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement.

 

We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You can read our SEC filings and the documents incorporated by reference and any exhibits, including the registration statement, over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. We also maintain a website at http://www.eyenovia.com, at which you may access these materials free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this prospectus.

 

S-17

 

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with them. Incorporation by reference allows us to disclose important information to you by referring you to those other documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We are incorporating by reference the documents listed below, which we have already filed with the SEC, and all documents subsequently filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the termination of any offering, except as to any portion of any future report or document that is not deemed filed under such provisions:

 

·our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 that we filed with the SEC on March 30, 2021;

 

·the portions of our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A filed on April 30, 2021 that are deemed “filed” with the SEC under the Exchange Act;

 

·our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarters ended June 30, 2021, March 31, 2021 and September 30, 2021 that we filed with the SEC on August 12, 2021, May 14, 2021 and November 12, 2021, respectively;

 

·our Current Reports on Form 8-K that we filed with the SEC on February 3, 2021, March 2, 2021, March 15, 2021, April 1, 2021, May 5, 2021, May 10, 2021, May 14, 2021, May 25, 2021, June 15, 2021, June 16, 2021, June 21, 2021, August 11, 2021, September 15, 2021, October 25, 2021, November 5, 2021, November 10, 2021, December 3, 2021, and December 6, 2021 (except for the information furnished under Items 2.02 or 7.01 and the exhibits furnished thereto);

 

·the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on January 24, 2018, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description; and

 

·all reports and other documents subsequently filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination or completion of the offering of securities under this prospectus shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and to be a part hereof from the date of filing such reports and other documents.

 

The SEC file number for each of the documents listed above is 001-38365.

 

Any statement contained in this prospectus or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or other subsequently filed document that also is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

We will furnish without charge to you, on written or oral request, a copy of any filing or report incorporated by reference, including exhibits to the document. You should direct any requests for documents to Eyenovia, Inc., 295 Madison Avenue, Suite 2400, New York, NY 10017, (917) 289-1117, Attention: Corporate Secretary.

 

You should rely only on information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We are not making offers to sell the securities in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making such offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation.

 

S-18

 

 

Up to $50,000,000

 

 

 

Common Stock

 

PROSPECTUS

 

SVB Leerink

 

, 2021

 

  

 

 

PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

 

The following table sets forth an itemization of the various expenses, all of which we will pay, in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered. All of the amounts shown are estimated except the SEC Registration Fee.

 

SEC Registration Fee   $ 5,830  
Accounting Fees and Expenses     15,000  
Legal Fees and Expenses     125,000  
Miscellaneous     4,170  
Total   150,000  

  

 

*

All amounts in the table above except for the SEC Registration Fee relate only to issuances under the at-the-market sales agreement with SVB Leerink LLC, and accordingly additional expense amounts will be incurred in connection with any other offerings and issuances hereunder.

 

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers

 

Section 102 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “Delaware General Corporation Law”) permits a corporation to eliminate the personal liability of directors of a corporation to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for a breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except where the director breached his duty of loyalty, failed to act in good faith, engaged in intentional misconduct or knowingly violated a law, authorized the payment of a dividend or approved a stock repurchase in violation of Delaware corporate law or obtained an improper personal benefit.

 

Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law authorizes a court to award, or a corporation’s board of directors to grant, indemnity to directors and officers in terms sufficiently broad to permit such indemnification under certain circumstances for liabilities, including reimbursement for expenses incurred, arising under the Securities Act.

 

Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law states:

 

(a) A corporation shall have power to indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the corporation) by reason of the fact that the person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if the person acted in good faith and in a manner the person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe the person’s conduct was unlawful. The termination of any action, suit or proceeding by judgment, order, settlement, conviction, or upon a plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent, shall not, of itself, create a presumption that the person did not act in good faith and in a manner which the person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had reasonable cause to believe that the person’s conduct was unlawful.

 

(b) A corporation shall have power to indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that the person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if the person acted in good faith and in a manner the person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation and except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

 

 II-1 

 

 

(c) To the extent that a present or former director or officer of a corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in defense of any action, suit or proceeding referred to in subsections (a) and (b) of this section, or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection therewith.

 

(d) Any indemnification under subsections (a) and (b) of this section (unless ordered by a court) shall be made by the corporation only as authorized in the specific case upon a determination that indemnification of the present or former director, officer, employee or agent is proper in the circumstances because the person has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in subsections (a) and (b) of this section. Such determination shall be made, with respect to a person who is a director or officer of the corporation at the time of such determination:

 

(1)            By a majority vote of the directors who are not parties to such action, suit or proceeding, even though less than a quorum; or

 

(2)            By a committee of such directors designated by majority vote of such directors, even though less than a quorum; or

 

(3)            If there are no such directors, or if such directors so direct, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion; or

 

(4)            By the stockholders.

 

(e) Expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by an officer or director of the corporation in defending any civil, criminal, administrative or investigative action, suit or proceeding may be paid by the corporation in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such director or officer to repay such amount if it shall ultimately be determined that such person is not entitled to be indemnified by the corporation as authorized in this section. Such expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by former directors and officers or other employees and agents of the corporation or by persons serving at the request of the corporation as directors, officers, employees or agents of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise may be so paid upon such terms and conditions, if any, as the corporation deems appropriate.

 

(f) The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, the other subsections of this section shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which those seeking indemnification or advancement of expenses may be entitled under any bylaw, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in such person’s official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding such office. A right to indemnification or to advancement of expenses arising under a provision of the certificate of incorporation or a bylaw shall not be eliminated or impaired by an amendment to the certificate of incorporation or the bylaws after the occurrence of the act or omission that is the subject of the civil, criminal, administrative or investigative action, suit or proceeding for which indemnification or advancement of expenses is sought, unless the provision in effect at the time of such act or omission explicitly authorizes such elimination or impairment after such action or omission has occurred.

 

(g) A corporation shall have power to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by such person in any such capacity, or arising out of such person’s status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such liability under this section.

 

 II-2 

 

 

(h) For purposes of this section, references to “the corporation” shall include, in addition to the resulting corporation, any constituent corporation (including any constituent of a constituent) absorbed in a consolidation or merger which, if its separate existence had continued, would have had power and authority to indemnify its directors, officers, and employees or agents, so that any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of such constituent corporation, or is or was serving at the request of such constituent corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, shall stand in the same position under this section with respect to the resulting or surviving corporation as such person would have with respect to such constituent corporation if its separate existence had continued.

 

(i) For purposes of this section, references to “other enterprises” shall include employee benefit plans; references to “fines” shall include any excise taxes assessed on a person with respect to any employee benefit plan; and references to “serving at the request of the corporation” shall include any service as a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation which imposes duties on, or involves services by, such director, officer, employee or agent with respect to an employee benefit plan, its participants or beneficiaries; and a person who acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in the interest of the participants and beneficiaries of an employee benefit plan shall be deemed to have acted in a manner “not opposed to the best interests of the corporation” as referred to in this section.

 

(j) The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, this section shall, unless otherwise provided when authorized or ratified, continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director, officer, employee or agent and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person.

 

(k) The Court of Chancery is hereby vested with exclusive jurisdiction to hear and determine all actions for advancement of expenses or indemnification brought under this section or under any bylaw, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors, or otherwise. The Court of Chancery may summarily determine a corporation’s obligation to advance expenses (including attorneys’ fees).

 

As permitted by Delaware law, our third amended and restated certificate of incorporation (“Certificate of Incorporation”) limits or eliminates the personal liability of our directors to the maximum extent permitted by Delaware law.

 

Our amended and restated bylaws (“Bylaws”) provide for indemnification of our directors and executive officers to the maximum extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law.

 

In addition, we have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our current directors and executive officers and we intend to enter into new indemnification agreements with certain of our current directors and each of our executive officers. These agreements will require us to indemnify these individuals to the fullest extent permitted under Delaware law against liabilities that may arise by reason of their service to us and to advance expenses incurred as a result of any proceeding against them as to which they could be indemnified. We also intend to enter into indemnification agreements with our future directors and executive officers.

 

We also maintain standard policies of insurance under which coverage is provided to our directors and officers against losses arising from claims made by reason of breach of duty or other wrongful act, and to us with respect to payments which may be made by us to such directors and officers pursuant to the above indemnification provisions or otherwise as a matter of law

 

The above discussion of our Certificate of Incorporation, our Bylaws, our indemnification agreements with our current directors and executive officers and Sections 102 and 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law is not intended to be exhaustive and is respectively qualified in its entirety by such Certificate of Incorporation, such Bylaws, such indemnification agreements and such statutes.

 

To the extent that our directors, officers and controlling persons are indemnified under the provisions contained in our Certificate of Incorporation, Delaware law or contractual arrangements against liabilities arising under the Securities Act, we have been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

 

 II-3 

 

 

Item 16. Exhibits

 

The following exhibits are filed herewith or incorporated herein by reference:

 

Exhibit Number   Exhibit Description   Filed Herewith   Incorporated by Reference herein from Form or Schedule   Filing Date   SEC File/ Reg. Number
                     
1.1*   Form of Underwriting Agreement.                
1.2   Sales Agreement, dated as of December 14, 2021, by and between the Registrant and SVB Leerink LLC   X            
3.1   Third Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant       8-K (Exhibit 3.1)   1/29/2018   001-38365
3.2   Certificate of Amendment to Third Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant       8-K (Exhibit 3.1.1)   6/14/2018   001-38365
3.3   Amended and Restated By-laws of the Registrant       8-K (Exhibit 3.2)   3/12/2018   001-38365
4.1   Form of Senior Indenture   X            
4.2   Form of Subordinated Indenture   X            
4.3*   Form of Senior Debt Security                
4.4*   Form of Subordinated Debt Security                
4.5*   Form of Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate                
4.6*   Form of Unit Agreement and Unit Certificate                
4.7*   Form of Rights Agreement and Rights Certificate                
5.1   Opinion of Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C. with respect to the legality of the securities being registered   X            
23.1   Consent of Marcum LLP   X            
23.2   Consent of Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C. (included in the opinion filed as Exhibit 5.1)   X            
24.1   Powers of Attorney (included on the signature page of this registration statement).   X            
25.1*   The Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Indenture will be incorporated herein by reference from a subsequent filing in accordance with Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.                

 

*To be subsequently filed, if applicable, by an amendment to this registration statement or by a Current Report on Form 8-K

 

Item 17. Undertakings

 

(a)The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

(i) To include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

 II-4 

 

 

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement; provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post- effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

(i) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

 II-5 

 

 

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(b) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act:

 

(i) the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in the form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and

 

(ii) each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(c) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(d) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

(e) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act (“Act”) in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under section 305(b)(2) of the Act.

 

 II-6 

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of New York, State of New York, on the 14th day of December, 2021.

 

  EYENOVIA INC.
   
  By: /s/ Tsontcho Ianchulev
    Tsontcho Ianchulev
    Chief Executive Officer

 

 II-7 

 

 

SIGNATURES AND POWER OF ATTORNEY

 

We, the undersigned officers and directors of Eyenovia, Inc., hereby severally constitute and appoint Tsontcho Ianchulev and John Gandolfo, and each of them singly (with full power to each of them to act alone), our true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution in each of them for her or him and in her or his name, place and stead, and in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement (or any other registration statement for the same offering that is to be effective upon filing pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite or necessary to be done in and about the premises, as full to all intents and purposes as she or he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents or any of them or their or her or his substitute or substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed below by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature   Capacity   Date
         
/s/ Tsontcho Ianchulev   Chief Executive Officer and Director   December 14, 2021
Tsontcho Ianchulev   (Principal Executive Officer)    
         
/s/ John Gandolfo   Chief Financial Officer   December 14, 2021
John Gandolfo   (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)    
         
/s/ Curt H. LaBelle   Director   December 14, 2021
Curt H. LaBelle        
         
/s/ Kenneth B. Lee, Jr.   Director   December 14, 2021
Kenneth B. Lee, Jr.        
         
/s/  Ernest Mario   Director   December 14, 2021
Ernest Mario        
         
/s/ Charles E. Mather IV   Director   December 14, 2021
Charles E. Mather IV        
         
/s/ Anthony Y. Sun   Director   December 14, 2021
Anthony Y. Sun        
         
/s/ Julia A. Haller   Director   December 14, 2021
Julia A. Haller        

 

 II-8 

 

Exhibit 1.2

 

EYENOVIA, INC.

Shares of Common Stock

($0.0001 par value per share)

 

SALES AGREEMENT

 

December 14, 2021

 

SVB LEERINK LLC

1301 Avenue of the Americas, 12th Floor

New York, New York 10019

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

Eyenovia, Inc. corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with SVB Leerink LLC (the “Agent”), as follows:

 

1.            Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through the Agent up to $50.0 million of shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, of the Company (the “Common Stock”), subject to the limitations set forth in Section 5(c) (the “Placement Shares”). Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitation set forth in this Section 1 on the aggregate gross sales price of Placement Shares that may be issued and sold under this Agreement from time to time shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and that the Agent shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The issuance and sale of Placement Shares through the Agent will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) to be filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) on December 14, 2021, although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to issue any Placement Shares.

 

The Company has prepared and will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Common Stock, to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”). The Company has prepared a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus included as part of such registration statement at the time the registration statement became or becomes effective, which prospectus supplement specifically relates to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time pursuant to this Agreement (the “Prospectus Supplement”). The Company will furnish to the Agent, for use by the Agent, copies of the base prospectus included as part of such registration statement at the time it became or becomes effective, as supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The base prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement, in the form in which such prospectus and/or Prospectus Supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, together with any “issuer free writing prospectus” (as used herein, as defined in Rule 433 under the Securities Act (“Rule 433”)), relating to the Placement Shares that (i) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (ii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case, in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g), is herein called the “Prospectus.”

 

 

 

Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or any issuer free writing prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents, if any, that are or are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein (the “Incorporated Documents”), including, unless the context otherwise requires, the documents, if any, filed as exhibits to such Incorporated Documents. Any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or any issuer free writing prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act on or after the most-recent effective date of the Registration Statement, or the respective dates of the Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or such issuer free writing prospectus, as the case may be, and incorporated therein by reference. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include the most recent copy filed with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval System or, if applicable, the Interactive Data Electronic Application system when used by the Commission (collectively, “EDGAR”).

 

2.            Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell any Placement Shares through the Agent hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify the Agent by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (each such notice, a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires such Placement Shares to be sold, which at a minimum shall include the maximum number or amount of Placement Shares to be sold, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number or amount of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one Trading Day (as defined in Section 3) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice must originate from one of the individuals authorized to act on behalf of the Company and set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such Schedule 2), and shall be addressed to each of the recipients from the Agent set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be updated by either party from time to time by sending a written notice containing a revised Schedule 2 to the other party in the manner provided in Section 12 (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply). The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by the Agent unless and until (i) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Agent declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, within two Trading Days of the date the Agent receives the Placement Notice, (ii) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Agent suspends sales under the Placement Notice for any reason in its sole discretion, (iii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares has been sold pursuant to this Agreement, (iv) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Company suspends sales under or terminates the Placement Notice for any reason in its sole discretion, (v) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice and explicitly indicates that its parameters supersede those contained in the earlier dated Placement Notice or (vi) this Agreement has been terminated pursuant to the provisions of Section 11. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to the Agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares effected through the Agent shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 3. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor the Agent will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to the Agent and the Agent does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control with respect to the matters covered thereby.

 

2

 

 

3.            Sale of Placement Shares by the Agent. On the basis of the representations and warranties herein contained and subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, including Section 5(c), upon the Agent’s acceptance of the terms of a Placement Notice as provided in Section 2, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, the Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations, and the rules of the Nasdaq Capital Market (“Nasdaq”) to sell such Placement Shares up to the number or amount specified in, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of, such Placement Notice. The Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number or amount of Placement Shares sold on such Trading Day, the volume-weighted average price of the Placement Shares sold and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company. Unless otherwise specified by the Company in a Placement Notice, the Agent may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through Nasdaq, on or through any other existing trading market for the Common Stock or to or through a market maker. If expressly authorized by the Company (including in a Placement Notice), the Agent may also sell Placement Shares in negotiated transactions, provided that the Agent may not sell more than 5% of the offering in negotiated transactions and the Agent will sell the Placement Shares in accordance with Nasdaq Listing Rule IM-5635-3. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 6(tt), except as may be otherwise agreed by the Company and the Agent, the Agent shall not purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement unless the Company and the Agent enter into a separate written agreement setting forth the terms of such sale. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that the Agent will be successful in selling Placement Shares, (ii) the Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of Nasdaq to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Agreement and (iii) the Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement unless the Company and the Agent enter into a separate written agreement setting forth the terms of such sale. For the purposes hereof, “Trading Day” means any day on which the Common Stock is purchased and sold on Nasdaq.

 

4.            Suspension of Sales.

 

(a)           The Company or the Agent may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2), suspend any sale of Placement Shares; provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other party unless notice is sent by one of the individuals named on Schedule 2 hereto to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply).

 

3

 

 

(b)           Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Company is, or could be deemed to be, in possession of material non-public information, the Company and the Agent agree that (i) no sale of Placement Shares will take place, (ii) the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares and shall cancel any effective Placement Notices instructing the Agent to make any sales and (iii) the Agent shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.

 

5.            Settlement and Delivery of the Placement Shares.

 

(a)           Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice or as is required for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date”). The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate gross sales price received by the Agent at which such Placement Shares were sold, after deduction of (i) the Agent’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to the Agent hereunder pursuant to Section 7(g) hereof and (iii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales.

 

(b)           Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will issue the Placement Shares being sold on such date and will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer such Placement Shares by crediting the Agent’s or its designee’s account (provided the Agent shall have given the Company written notice of such designee prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System (“DWAC”) or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto, which in all cases shall be duly authorized, freely tradeable, transferable, registered shares of Common Stock in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, the Agent will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on or prior to the Settlement Date. The Agent shall be responsible for providing DWAC instructions or other instructions for delivery by other means with regard to the transfer of the Placement Shares being sold. In addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 9(a) hereto, the Company agrees that if the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver duly authorized, freely tradeable, transferable, registered Placement Shares in good deliverable form by 2:30 P.M., New York City time, on a Settlement Date (other than as a result of a failure by the Agent to provide instructions for delivery), the Company will (i) take all necessary action to cause the full amount of any Net Proceeds that were delivered to the Company’s account with respect to such settlement, together with any costs incurred by the Agent and/or its clearing firm in connection with recovering such Net Proceeds, to be immediately returned to the Agent or its clearing firm no later than 5:00 P.M., New York City time, on such Settlement Date, by wire transfer of immediately available funds to an account designated by the Agent or its clearing firm, (ii) indemnify and hold the Agent and its clearing firm harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or expense (including reasonable legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable) and (iii) pay to the Agent any commission, discount or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default. Certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, shall be in such denominations and registered in such names as the Agent may request in writing one Business Day (as defined below) before the applicable Settlement Date. Certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, will be made available by the Company for examination and packaging by the Agent in New York City not later than 12:00 P.M., New York City time, on the Business Day prior to the applicable Settlement Date.

 

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(c)           Limitations on Offering Size. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares if, after giving effect to the sale of such Placement Shares, the aggregate number or gross sales proceeds of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement would exceed the lesser of: (i) the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock registered pursuant to, and available for offer and sale under, the Registration Statement pursuant to which the offering of Placement Shares is being made, (ii) the number of authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock of the Company (less shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange of any outstanding securities of the Company or otherwise reserved from the Company’s authorized capital stock), (iii) the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock permitted to be offered and sold by the Company under Form S-3 (including General Instruction I.B.6. thereof, if such instruction is applicable), (iv) the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock that the Company’s board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof is authorized to issue and sell from time to time, and notified to the Agent in writing, or (v) the dollar amount of shares of Common Stock for which the Company has filed the Prospectus Supplement. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement at a price lower than the minimum price authorized from time to time by the Company’s board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof, and notified to the Agent in writing. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto acknowledge and agree that compliance with the limitations set forth in this Section 5(c) on the number or dollar amount of Placement Shares that may be issued and sold under this Agreement from time to time shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and that the Agent shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance.

 

6.            Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, the Agent that as of the date of this Agreement (except for those representations, warranties and agreements that speak solely as of a specified date or time, in which case as of such date or time), and as of (i) each Representation Date (as defined in Section 7(m)), other than a Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending), (ii) each date on which a Placement Notice is given, (iii) the date and time of each sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and (iv) each Settlement Date (each such time or date referred to in clauses (i) through (iv), an “Applicable Time”):

 

(a)           The Company and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement meet the requirements for and comply with the conditions for the use of Form S-3 (including General Instructions I.A and I.B.1.) under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement has been or will be filed with the Commission and will be declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act prior to the issuance of any Placement Notices by the Company. At the time the Registration Statement became or becomes effective and at the time the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, was filed with the Commission, the Company met the then-applicable requirements for use of Form S-3 (including General Instructions I.A and I.B.1.) under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement meets, and the offering and sale of Placement Shares as contemplated hereby comply with, the requirements of Rule 415(a)(1)(x) under the Securities Act. The Agent is named as the agent engaged by the Company in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus Supplement. The Company has not received, and has no notice from the Commission of, any notice pursuant to Rule 401(g)(1) under the Securities Act objecting to the use of the shelf registration statement form. No stop order of the Commission preventing or suspending the use of the base prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus, or the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, has been issued, and no proceedings for such purpose are pending before or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened by the Commission. At the time of the initial filing of the Registration Statement, the Company paid the required Commission filing fees relating to the securities covered by the Registration Statement, including the Shares that may be sold pursuant to this Agreement, in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act. Copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any such amendments or supplements to any of the foregoing and all Incorporated Documents that were filed with the Commission on or prior to the date of this Agreement have been delivered, or are available through EDGAR, to the Agent and its counsel.

 

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(b)           Each of the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, at the time it became or becomes effective, at each deemed effective date with respect to the Agent pursuant to Rule 430B(f)(2) under the Securities Act and as of each Applicable Time, complied, complies and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and did not, does not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, except that the representations and warranties set forth in this sentence do not apply to Agent’s Information (as defined below). The Prospectus and any amendment or supplement thereto, when so filed with the Commission under Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, complied, complies and as of each Applicable Time will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act, and each Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or issuer free writing prospectus (or any amendments or supplements to any of the foregoing) furnished to the Agent for use in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares was identical to the electronically transmitted copies thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T. Neither the Prospectus nor any amendment or supplement thereto, as of its date and as of each Applicable Time, included, includes or will include an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted, omits or will omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, except that the representations and warranties set forth in this sentence do not apply to Agent’s Information. Each Incorporated Document heretofore filed, when it was filed (or, if any amendment with respect to any such document was filed, when such amendment was filed), conformed in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act and was filed on a timely basis with the Commission, and any further Incorporated Documents so filed and incorporated after the date of this Agreement will be filed on a timely basis and, when so filed, will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act; no such Incorporated Document when it was filed (or, if an amendment with respect to any such document was filed, when such amendment was filed), contained an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; and no such Incorporated Document, when it is filed, will contain an untrue statement of a material fact or will omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading;

 

(c)           The Company is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act (an “Emerging Growth Company”).

 

(d)           (i) At the time of filing the Registration Statement and (ii) as of the time of the execution of this Agreement, the Company was not and is not an ineligible issuer, as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act (an “Ineligible Issuer”), without taking account of any determination by the Commission pursuant to Rule 405 that it is not necessary that the Company be considered an Ineligible Issuer;

 

(e)           Each issuer free writing prospectus, as of its issue date and as of each Applicable Time, did not, does not and will not include any information that conflicted, conflicts or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including any Incorporated Document deemed to be a part thereof that has not been superseded or modified. Each issuer free writing prospectus that the Company has filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433 or that was prepared by or on behalf of or used by the Company complies or will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act.

 

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(f)           The Company has not distributed and, prior to the later to occur of each Settlement Date and completion of the Agent’s distribution of the Placement Shares under this Agreement, will not distribute any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares other than the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below).

 

(g)           The Company is subject to and in compliance in all material respects with the reporting requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act and is listed on Nasdaq, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or reasonably likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from Nasdaq, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. The Company is in compliance with the current listing standards of Nasdaq. The Company has filed a Notification of Listing of Additional Shares with Nasdaq with respect to the Placement Shares.

 

(h)           The Company has been duly incorporated and is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction in which it is chartered or organized with full corporate power and authority to own or lease, as the case may be, and to operate its properties and conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, and is duly qualified to do business as a foreign corporation and is in good standing under the laws of each jurisdiction which requires such qualification, except where the failure to so qualify would not reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on (i) the financial condition, business or properties of the Company, taken as a whole or (ii) the Company’s performance of this Agreement or any of the transactions contemplated hereby (clauses (i) and (ii), each a “Material Adverse Effect”), except as set forth in or contemplated in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (exclusive of any supplement thereto);

 

(i)           The Company has an authorized capitalization as set forth in the Registration Statement and Prospectus, and all of the issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued, are fully-paid and non-assessable and conform to the descriptions thereof contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus;

 

(j)           There is no franchise, contract or other document of a character required to be described in the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or to be filed as an exhibit thereto, which is not described or filed as required;

 

(k)           This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company. The Placement Shares have been duly authorized for issuance and sale pursuant to this Agreement and, when issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor pursuant to this Agreement, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable and will conform in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Prospectus. The issuance and sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated hereby shall not be subject to any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase the Placement Shares. When issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor pursuant to this Agreement, the purchasers of the Placement Shares issued and sold hereunder will acquire good, marketable and valid title to such Placement Shares, free and clear of all pledges, liens, security interests, charges, claims or encumbrances. The issuance and sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated hereby will not cause any holder of any share capital, securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for share capital or options, warrants or other rights to purchase share capital or any other securities of the Company to have any right to acquire any preferred shares of the Company. There are no restrictions upon the voting or transfer of the Common Stock under the Company’s Charter or Bylaws or any agreement or other instrument to which the Company is a party or otherwise filed as an exhibit to the Registration Statement;

 

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(l)           The Company is not and, after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Placement Shares and the application of the proceeds thereof as described in the Prospectus, will not be an “investment company” as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended;

 

(m)           No consent, approval, authorization, filing with or order of any court or governmental agency or regulatory body with jurisdiction over the Company is required in connection with the transactions contemplated herein, except (i) such as have been obtained under the Securities Act, (ii) such as may be required under the blue sky laws of any jurisdiction in connection with the purchase and distribution of the Placement Shares by the Agent in the manner contemplated herein and in the Prospectus, (iii) such as may be required by the applicable rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”), (iv) such as may be required by the listing rules of the Nasdaq Capital Market (“Nasdaq”); and (v) such consents, approvals, authorizations, filings or orders as shall have been obtained;

 

(n)           Neither the issue and sale of the Placement Shares nor the consummation of any other of the transactions herein contemplated nor the fulfillment of the terms hereof will conflict with, result in a breach or violation of, or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company pursuant to (i) the charter or by-laws of the Company; (ii) the terms of any indenture, contract, lease, mortgage, deed of trust, note agreement, loan agreement or other agreement, obligation, condition, covenant or instrument to which the Company is a party or bound or to which its property is subject; or (iii) any statute, law, rule, regulation, judgment, order or decree applicable to the Company of any court, regulatory body, administrative agency, governmental body, arbitrator or other authority having jurisdiction over the Company, except, in the cases of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such conflict, breach, violation or default that would not reasonably expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect;

 

(o)           No holders of securities of the Company have rights to the registration of such securities under the Registration Statement except for such as have been effectively waived;

 

(p)           The financial statements of the Company included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus present fairly the financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of the Company as of the dates and for the periods indicated, comply as to form in all material respects with the applicable accounting requirements of the Securities Act and have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved (except as otherwise noted therein including with respect to the unaudited financial statements and the related notes thereby). The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus and the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto;

 

(q)           No action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or its property is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened that would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, except as set forth in or contemplated in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (exclusive of any supplement thereto);

 

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(r)           The Company owns or leases all such properties as are necessary to the conduct of its operations as presently conducted;

 

(s)           The Company is not in violation or default of (i) any provision of its charter or bylaws; (ii) the terms of any indenture, contract, lease, mortgage, deed of trust, note agreement, loan agreement or other agreement, obligation, condition, covenant or instrument to which it is a party or bound or to which its property is subject; or (iii) any statute, law, rule, regulation, judgment, order or decree of any court, regulatory body, administrative agency, governmental body, arbitrator or other authority having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its properties, as applicable, except, in the cases of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such conflict, breach, violation or default that would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect;

 

(t)           Marcum LLP, who has certified certain financial statements of the Company and delivered their report with respect to the audited financial statements included or incorporated by reference in Registration Statement and the Prospectus, are independent public accountants with respect to the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act and the applicable published rules and regulations thereunder;

 

(u)           The Company has filed all tax returns that are required to be filed or has requested extensions thereof (except in any case in which the failure so to file would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect), and has paid all taxes required to be paid by it and any other assessment, fine or penalty levied against it, to the extent that any of the foregoing is due and payable, except for any such assessment, fine or penalty that is currently being contested in good faith or as would not reasonably be expected to have Material Adverse Effect;

 

(v)           Subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus: (i) there has been no material adverse change, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a material adverse change, in the condition (financial or otherwise), earnings, results of operations, business, properties, operations, assets, liabilities or prospects of the Company, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business; (ii) the Company has not (A) incurred any material liability or obligation, indirect, direct or contingent, including without limitation any losses or interference with its business from fire, explosion, flood, earthquakes, accident or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any strike, labor dispute or court or governmental action, order or decree, that are material to the Company, (B) entered into any material transactions not in the ordinary course of business or (C) issued or granted any shares of the Company’s capital stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for or that represent the right to receive shares of the Company’s capital stock other than under the stock plans; and (iii) there has not been any material decrease in the share capital or any material increase in any short-term or long-term indebtedness of the Company and there has been no dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made by the Company or any repurchase or redemption by the Company or any class of shares.

 

(w)           No labor problem or dispute with the employees of the Company exists or is threatened or imminent, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by the employees of any of its principal suppliers, contractors or customers, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect;

 

(x)           The Company is insured by insurers of recognized financial responsibility against such losses and risks and in such amounts as the Company reasonably believes are prudent and customary in the businesses in which they are engaged; all policies of insurance insuring the Company or its businesses, assets, employees, officers and directors are in full force and effect; the Company is in compliance with the terms of such policies and instruments in all material respects; and there are no claims by the Company under any such policy or instrument as to which any insurance company is denying liability or defending under a reservation of rights clause; the Company has not been refused any insurance coverage sought or applied for; and the Company has no reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business at a cost that would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect;

 

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(y)           The Company possesses all licenses, certificates, permits and other authorizations required to be issued by all applicable authorities necessary to conduct its business, except where the failure to possess such licenses, permits and other authorizations would individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, and the Company has not received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any such certificate, authorization or permit which, singly or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect;

 

(z)           The Company maintains a system of internal accounting controls designed to provide reasonable assurances that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with United States generally accepted accounting principles and to maintain asset accountability; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. The Company’s internal controls over financial reporting are effective and the Company is not aware of any material weakness in their internal controls over financial reporting (it being understood that, as of the date hereof, the Company is not required to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (as defined herein);

 

(aa)          The Company maintains “disclosure controls and procedures” (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(e) under the Exchange Act); such disclosure controls and procedures are effective at the reasonable assurance level;

 

(bb)          The Company has not taken, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that would constitute or that might reasonably be expected to cause or result in, under the Exchange Act or otherwise, stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares;

 

(cc)          The Company is (i) in compliance with any and all applicable foreign, federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the protection of human health and safety, the environment or hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants (“Environmental Laws”), (ii) has received and is in compliance with all permits, licenses or other approvals required of them under applicable Environmental Laws to conduct its business and (iii) has not received notice of any actual or potential liability under any environmental law, except in the case of (i), (ii) and (iii), where such non-compliance with Environmental Laws, failure to receive required permits, licenses or other approvals, or liability would not, individually or in the aggregate, be reasonably expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has not been named as a “potentially responsible party” under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended;

 

(dd)          To the knowledge of the Company, there are no capital or operating expenditures required for clean-up, closure of properties or compliance with Environmental Laws, or any related potential liabilities to third parties that would, singly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect;

 

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(ee)          None of the following events has occurred or exists: (i) a failure to fulfill the obligations, if any, under the minimum funding standards of Section 302 of the United States Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”), and the regulations and published interpretations thereunder with respect to a Plan, determined without regard to any waiver of such obligations or extension of any amortization period; (ii) an audit or investigation by the Internal Revenue Service, the U.S. Department of Labor, the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation or any other federal or state governmental agency or any foreign regulatory agency with respect to the employment or compensation of employees by any of the Company that could have a Material Adverse Effect; (iii) any breach of any contractual obligation, or any violation of law or applicable qualification standards, with respect to the employment or compensation of employees by the Company that would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. None of the following events has occurred or is reasonably likely to occur: (i) a material increase in the aggregate amount of contributions required to be made to all Plans in the current fiscal year of the Company compared to the amount of such contributions made in the most recently completed fiscal year of the Company; (ii) a material increase in the “accumulated post-retirement benefit obligations” (within the meaning of Statement of Financial Accounting Standards 106) of the Company compared to the amount of such obligations in the most recently completed fiscal year of the Company; (iii) any event or condition giving rise to a liability under Title IV of ERISA that could have a Material Adverse Effect; or (iv) the filing of a claim by one or more employees or former employees of the Company related to their employment that could have a Material Adverse Effect. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “Plan” means a plan (within the meaning of Section 3(3) of ERISA) subject to Title IV of ERISA with respect to which the Company may have any liability;

 

(ff)          There is and has been no failure on the part of the Company and any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply with any provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules and regulations promulgated in connection therewith (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), including Section 402 relating to loans and Sections 302 and 906 relating to certifications;

 

(gg)          Neither the Company nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, employee, affiliate, agent, representative or other person acting on behalf of the Company is aware of or has taken any action, directly or indirectly, that could result in a violation or a sanction for violation by such persons of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 or the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, each as may be amended, or similar law of any other relevant jurisdiction, or the rules or regulations thereunder; and the Company has instituted and maintains policies and procedures to ensure compliance therewith. No part of the proceeds of the offering will be used, directly or indirectly, in violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 or the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, each as may be amended, or similar law of any other relevant jurisdiction, or the rules or regulations thereunder;

 

(hh)          The operations of the Company are and have been conducted at all times in material compliance with applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements and the money laundering statutes and the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”) and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened;

 

(ii)           Neither the Company nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, agent, employee or affiliate of the Company (i) is, or is controlled or 50% or more owned in the aggregate by or is acting on behalf of, one or more individuals or entities that are currently the subject of any sanctions administered or enforced by the United States (including any administered or enforced by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury, the U.S. Department of State or the Bureau of Industry and Security of the U.S. Department of Commerce), the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, a member state of the European Union (including sanctions administered or enforced by Her Majesty’s Treasury of the United Kingdom) or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions” and such persons, “Sanctioned Persons” and each such person, a “Sanctioned Person”) or (ii) is located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is, or whose government is, the subject of Sanctions that broadly prohibit dealings with that country or territory (collectively, “Sanctioned Countries” and each, a “Sanctioned Country”). The Company will not, directly or indirectly, use the proceeds of this offering, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other individual or entity in any manner that would result in a violation of any Sanctions by, or could result in the imposition of Sanctions against, any individual or entity (including any individual or entity participating in the offering, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise);

 

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(jj)          The Company has not engaged in any dealings or transactions with or for the benefit of a Sanctioned Person, or with or in a Sanctioned Country, in the preceding five years, nor does the Company have any plans to engage in dealings or transactions with or for the benefit of a Sanctioned Person, or with or in a Sanctioned Country;

 

(kk)         The Company does not have any subsidiaries;

 

(ll)           Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as applicable, the Company (i) is and at all times has been in compliance in all respects with all applicable statutes, rules and regulations applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, marketing, advertising, labeling, promotion, sale, offer for sale, storage, import, export or disposal of any product manufactured or distributed by the Company including, without limitation the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. §301 et seq.), the federal Anti-Kickback Statute (42 U.S.C. §1320a-7b(b)), the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, as amended by the Health Care and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act of 2010, the regulations promulgated pursuant to such laws, and any successor government programs and comparable state laws, regulations relating to Good Clinical Practices and Good Laboratory Practices and all other applicable local, state, federal, national, supranational and foreign laws relating to the regulation of the Company (collectively, the “Applicable Laws”); (ii) has not received any notice from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority or third party alleging or asserting noncompliance with any Applicable Laws or any licenses, exemptions, certificates, approvals, clearances, authorizations, permits, registrations and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Applicable Laws (“Authorizations”); (iii) possesses all Authorizations and such Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect in all respects and are not in violation of any term of any such Authorizations; (iv) has not received written notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation arbitration or other action from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority or third party alleging that any product operation or activity is in violation of any Applicable Laws or Authorizations nor is any such claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action threatened; (v) has not received any written notice that any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority has taken, is taking or intends to take, action to limit, suspend, materially modify or revoke any Authorizations nor is any such limitation, suspension, modification or revocation threatened; (vi) has filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Applicable Laws or Authorizations and that all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were complete and accurate on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission); and (vii) is not a party to any corporate integrity agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, settlement orders, or similar agreements with or imposed by any governmental or regulatory authority, except in each of (i), (iii) and (vi), where such noncompliance would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(mm)           The clinical and pre-clinical studies and trials conducted by or, to the knowledge of the Company, on behalf of or sponsored by the Company, or in which the Company has participated, that are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or the results of which are referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as applicable, were and, if still pending, are being conducted in all material respects in accordance with standard medical and scientific research procedures and all applicable statutes, rules and regulations of the FDA and comparable drug regulatory agencies outside of the United States to which it is subject (collectively, the “Regulatory Authorities”), including, without limitation, 21 C.F.R. Parts 50, 54, 56, 58, and 312, and current Good Clinical Practices and Good Laboratory Practices; the descriptions in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus of the results of such studies and trials are accurate and complete in all material respects and fairly present the data derived from such studies and trials; the Company has no knowledge of any other trials the results of which are inconsistent with or otherwise call into question the results described or referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; the Company has operated and is currently in compliance in all material respects with all applicable statutes, rules and regulations of the Regulatory Authorities; the Company has not received any written notices, correspondence or other communication from the Regulatory Authorities or any applicable governmental authority requiring or threatening the termination or suspension of any clinical or pre-clinical trials that are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or the results of which are referred to in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, other than ordinary course communications with respect to pending clinical trials, and, to the Company’s knowledge, there are no reasonable grounds for same.

 

(nn)           Except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, the Company owns, possesses, licenses or has other rights to use or can acquire on reasonable terms, all patents, patent applications, trade and service marks, trade and service mark registrations, trade names, copyrights, licenses, inventions, trade secrets, technology, know-how and other intellectual property (collectively, the “Intellectual Property”) necessary for the conduct of the Company’s business as now conducted or as proposed in the Registration Statement and Prospectus to be conducted. To the Company’s knowledge, (a)  there are no rights of third parties to any such Intellectual Property; (b)  there is no infringement by third parties of any such Intellectual Property; (c) there is no pending or to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others challenging the Company’s rights in or to any such Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such claim; (d) there is no pending or to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others challenging the validity or scope of any such Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such claim; (e) there is no pending or to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others that the Company infringes or otherwise violates any patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret or other proprietary rights of others, and the Company is unaware of any other fact which would form a reasonable basis for any such claim; (f) there is no U.S. patent or published U.S. patent application which contains claims that dominate or may dominate any Intellectual Property described in the Prospectus as being owned by or licensed to the Company or that interferes with the issued or pending claims of any such Intellectual Property; and (g) there is no prior art of which the Company is aware that may render any U.S. patent held by the Company invalid or any U.S. patent application held by the Company un-patentable which has not been disclosed to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, except in the cases of (a) through (g), as would not reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect,

 

(oo)            Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company (i) does not have any material lending or other relationship with any bank or lending affiliate of the Representative and (ii) does not intend to use any of the proceeds from the sale of the Securities hereunder to repay any outstanding debt owed to any affiliate of the Representative; and

 

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(pp)           At the time the Registration Statement became or becomes effective and as of the date hereof, the Company met and currently meets the then applicable requirements for the use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act, including, but not limited to, General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3; the aggregate market value of securities sold by or on behalf of the Company pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3 during the 12 month period immediately prior to, and including, the date of this Agreement is no more than one-third of the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Company, as determined pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3. The Company is not a shell company (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) and has not been a shell company for at least 12 calendar months previously and if it has been a shell company at any time previously, has filed current Form 10 information (as defined in Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3) with the Commission at least 12 calendar months previously reflecting its status as an entity that is not a shell company.

 

(qq)           The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) or 12(g) of the Exchange Act and is listed on Nasdaq. The Company has taken no action designed to terminate, or likely to have the effect of terminating, the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from Nasdaq, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. To the Company’s knowledge, it is in compliance with all applicable listing requirements of Nasdaq;

 

(rr)           There are no affiliations with FINRA among the Company's officers, directors or, to the best of the knowledge of the Company, any five percent or greater stockholder of the Company, except as set forth in the Registration Statement or otherwise disclosed in writing to the Representatives.

 

(ss)          The statistical and market related data included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes to be reliable and accurate.

 

(tt)           No person (as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated under the Securities Act) has the right to act as an underwriter or as a financial advisor to the Company in connection with the offer and sale of the Placement Shares hereunder, whether as a result of the filing or effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated hereby or otherwise. Except for the Agent, there is no broker, finder or other party that is entitled to receive from the Company or any of its Subsidiaries (as defined below) any brokerage or finder’s fee or other fee or commission as a result of any transactions contemplated by this Agreement

 

(uu)           The Company is not a party to any agreement with an agent or underwriter for any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction other than that certain Sales Agreement, dated May 14 2021, by and between the Company the Agent, which the Company and Agent have mutually agreed, in writing, shall be terminated upon the effectiveness of the Registration Statement .

 

(vv)           The Company is not required to register as a “broker” or “dealer” in accordance with the provisions of the Exchange Act and does not, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, control or have any other association with (within the meaning of Article I of the By-laws of FINRA) any member firm of FINRA. No relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company, on the one hand, and the directors, officers or shareholders of the Company, on the other hand, which is required by the rules of FINRA to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, which is not so described. All of the information (including, but not limited to, information regarding affiliations, security ownership and trading activity) provided to the Agent or its counsel by the Company, its officers and directors and the holders of any securities (debt or equity) or warrants, options or rights to acquire any securities of the Company in connection with the filing to be made and other supplemental information to be provided to FINRA pursuant to FINRA Rule 5110 in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement is true, complete and correct.

 

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(ww)          Each financial or operational projection or other “forward-looking statement” (as defined by Section 27A of the Securities Act or Section 21E of the Exchange Act) contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (i) was so included by the Company in good faith and with reasonable basis after due consideration by the Company of the underlying assumptions, estimates and other applicable facts and circumstances and (ii) as required, is accompanied by meaningful cautionary statements identifying those factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in such forward-looking statement. No such statement was made with the knowledge of a member of the Company’s Board of Directors or an executive officer of the Company that was false or misleading.

 

(xx)          Any certificate signed by any officer of the Company and delivered to the Agent or counsel for the Agent in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company, as to matters covered thereby, to the Agent.

 

7.            Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with the Agent that:

 

(a)           Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which the Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or a similar rule): (i) the Company will notify the Agent promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than Incorporated Documents, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus, other than Incorporated Documents, has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information; (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon the Agent’s request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in the Agent’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by the Agent (provided, however, that the failure of the Agent to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to make such filing (but without limiting the Agent’s rights under Section 9 hereof) will be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than Incorporated Documents, relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to the Agent within a reasonable period of time before the filing and the Agent has not reasonably objected thereto (provided, however, that the failure of the Agent to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the Company’s making such filing notwithstanding the Agent’s objection (but without limiting the Agent’s rights under Section 9 hereof) will be to cease making sales under this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to the Agent at the time of filing thereof a copy of any Incorporated Document, except for those documents available via EDGAR; and (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than Incorporated Documents, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act and, in the case of any Incorporated Document, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the Exchange Act, within the time period prescribed.

 

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(b)           Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise the Agent, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued. The Company will advise the Agent promptly after it receives any request by the Commission for any amendments to the Registration Statement or any amendment or supplements to the Prospectus or for additional information related to the offering of the Placement Shares or for additional information related to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus.

 

(c)           Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or a similar rule), the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and will file on or before their respective due dates (taking into account any extensions available under the Exchange Act) all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify the Agent to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance. If the Company has omitted any information from the Registration Statement pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, it will use its reasonable best efforts to comply with the provisions thereof and make all requisite filings with the Commission pursuant to said Rule 430B and to notify the Agent promptly of all such filings if not available on EDGAR.

 

(d)           Listing of Placement Shares. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or a similar rule), the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on Nasdaq. The Company will timely file with Nasdaq all material documents and notices required by Nasdaq of companies that have or will issue securities that are traded on Nasdaq.

 

(e)           Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to the Agent and its counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all Incorporated Documents) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all Incorporated Documents filed with the Commission during such period), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as the Agent may from time to time reasonably request and, at the Agent’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to the Agent to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

 

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(f)           Earnings Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders and to the Agent as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) of and Rule 158 under the Securities Act, which requirement shall be satisfied by the timely filing with the Commission of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

(g)           Expenses. The Company, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereunder are consummated or this Agreement is terminated in accordance with the provisions of Section 11 hereunder, will pay all expenses incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder, including expenses relating to (i) the preparation, printing and filing of the Registration Statement and each amendment and supplement thereto, of the Prospectus and of each amendment and supplement thereto and of this Agreement and such other documents as may be required in connection with the offering, purchase, sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares, (ii) the preparation, issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares and any taxes due or payable in connection therewith, (iii) the qualification of the Placement Shares under securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(w) of this Agreement, including filing fees (provided, however, that any fees or disbursements of counsel for the Agent in connection therewith shall be paid by the Agent except as set forth in clauses (vii) and (viii) below), (iv) the printing and delivery to the Agent and its counsel of copies of the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto, and of this Agreement, (v) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing or qualification of the Placement Shares for trading on Nasdaq, (vi) the filing fees and expenses, if any, owed to the Commission or FINRA and the fees and expenses of any transfer agent or registrar for the Shares, (vii) the reasonable documented fees and associated expenses of the Agent’s outside legal counsel for filings with the FINRA Corporate Financing Department in an amount not to exceed $15,000 (excluding FINRA filing fees referred to in clause (vi) above and in addition to the fees and disbursements referred to in clause (viii) below), and (viii) the reasonable documented fees and disbursements of the Agent’s outside legal counsel (A) in an amount not to exceed $75,000 arising out of executing this Agreement and the Company’s delivery of the initial certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) and (B) in an amount not to exceed $15,000 in connection with each Representation Date (as defined below) on which the Company is required to provide a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) (in addition to the fees and associated expenses referred to in clause (vii) above).

 

(h)           Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

 

(i)            Notice of Other Sales. Without the prior written consent of the Agent, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any shares of Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for shares of Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire shares of Common Stock during the period beginning on the fifth Trading Day immediately prior to the date on which any Placement Notice is delivered to Agent hereunder and ending on the second Trading Day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice (or, if the Placement Notice has been terminated or suspended prior to the sale of all Placement Shares covered by a Placement Notice, the date of such suspension or termination); and will not directly or indirectly in any other “at the market offering” or continuous equity transaction offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any shares of Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for shares of Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, shares of Common Stock prior to the later of the termination of this Agreement and the sixtieth day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice; provided, however, that such restrictions will not be required in connection with the Company’s issuance or sale of (i) shares of Common Stock, options to purchase shares of Common Stock, other securities under the Company’s existing equity incentive plans, or shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of options or vesting of other securities, pursuant to any employee or director stock option or benefits plan, stock ownership plan or dividend reinvestment plan (but not shares of Common Stock subject to a waiver to exceed plan limits in its dividend reinvestment plan) of the Company whether now in effect or hereafter implemented, (ii) shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding, and disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to the Agent and (iii) shares of Common Stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of Common Stock as consideration for mergers, acquisitions, other business combinations, licensing transactions, lending transactions, or strategic alliances occurring after the date of this Agreement which are not issued for equity capital raising purposes.

 

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(j)           Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during a fiscal quarter in which the Company intends to tender a Placement Notice or sell Placement Shares, advise the Agent promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document provided or required to be provided to the Agent pursuant to this Agreement.

 

(k)           Due Diligence Cooperation. During the term of this Agreement, the Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Agent, its affiliates agents and counsel from time to time in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as the Agent may reasonably request.

 

(l)           Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company agrees that on or prior to such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, which prospectus supplement will set forth, within the relevant period, the number or amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agent, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent with respect to such Placement Shares, and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market; provided, that, unless a prospectus supplement containing such information is required to be filed under the Securities Act, the requirement of this Section 7(l) may be satisfied by Company’s inclusion in the Company’s Form 10-K or Form 10-Q, as applicable, of the number or amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agent, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent with respect to such Placement Shares during the relevant period.

 

(m)           Representation Dates; Certificate. On or prior to the date on which the Company first delivers a Placement Notice pursuant to this agreement (the “First Placement Notice Date”) and each time the Company:

 

(i)            amends or supplements the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares (other than a prospectus supplement filed in accordance with Section 7(l) of this Agreement) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker or supplement but not by means of incorporation of document(s) by reference into the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares;

 

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(ii)            files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act (including any Form 10-K/A containing amended financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed Form 10-K);

 

(iii)            files a quarterly report on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or

 

(iv)            files a current report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than an earnings release that is “furnished” pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a “Representation Date”),

 

the Company shall furnish the Agent (but in the case of clause (iv) above only if (1) a Placement Notice is pending or in effect and (2) the Agent requests such certificate within three Business Days after the filing of such Form 8-K with the Commission) with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) (modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented), within two Trading Days of any Representation Date. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(m) shall be waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending or in effect, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of (1) the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and (2) the next occurring Representation Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation Date on which the Company relied on the waiver referred to in the previous sentence and did not provide the Agent with a certificate under this Section 7(m), then before the Company delivers a Placement Notice or the Agent sells any Placement Shares pursuant thereto, the Company shall provide the Agent with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m), dated the date of such Placement Notice. Within two Trading Days of each Representation Date, the Company shall have furnished to the Agent such further information, certificates and documents as the Agent may reasonably request.

 

(n)            Legal Opinions. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date and on any date which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agent the written opinion and negative assurance letter of Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C., counsel to the Company, or such other counsel satisfactory to the Agent (“Company Counsel”), in form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion and negative assurance letter are required to be delivered, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, that in lieu of such opinion and negative assurance letter for subsequent Representation Dates, Company Counsel may furnish the Agent with a letter to the effect that the Agent may rely on a prior opinion or negative assurance letter delivered by such counsel under this Section 7(n) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion or negative assurance letter shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Representation Date).

 

(o)            Comfort Letter. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date and on any date which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent registered public accounting firm (and any other independent accountants whose report is included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus) to furnish the Agent letters (the “Comfort Letters”), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, which shall meet the requirements set forth in this Section 7(o); provided, that if requested by the Agent, the Company shall cause a Comfort Letter to be furnished to the Agent within 10 Trading Days of the occurrence of any material transaction or event that necessitates the filing of additional, pro forma, amended or revised financial statements (including any restatement of previously issued financial statements). Each Comfort Letter shall be in form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and each Comfort Letter from the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm shall (i) confirm that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) state, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to underwriters in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the “Initial Comfort Letter”) and (iii) update the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

 

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(p)            Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, and will cause its officers, directors and Subsidiaries not to (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or might reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of shares of Common Stock or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase shares of Common Stock in violation of Regulation M, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than the Agent; provided, however, that the Company may bid for and purchase shares of Common Stock in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act.

 

(q)            Insurance. The Company and its Subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as is reasonable and customary for the business for which it is engaged.

 

(r)            Compliance with Laws. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, all material environmental certificates, authorizations or permits required by federal, state and local law in order to conduct their businesses as described in the Prospectus (collectively, “Permits”), and the Company and each of its Subsidiaries shall conduct their businesses, or cause their businesses to be conducted, in substantial compliance with such Permits and with applicable Environmental Laws, except where the failure to maintain or be in compliance with such Permits could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(s)            Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor any of its Subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act.

 

(t)            Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Company will use commercially reasonable efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the sales of, or dealings in, the Placement Shares as contemplated by the provisions hereof and the Prospectus.

 

(u)            No Offer to Sell. Other than a free writing prospectus (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) approved in advance by the Company and the Agent, neither the Agent nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than the Agent in its capacity as agent) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares hereunder.

 

(v)            Blue Sky and Other Qualifications. The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts, in cooperation with the Agent, to qualify the Placement Shares for offering and sale, or to obtain an exemption for the Placement Shares to be offered and sold, under the applicable securities laws of such states and other jurisdictions (domestic or foreign) as the Agent may designate and to maintain such qualifications and exemptions in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement); provided, however, that the Company shall not be obligated to file any general consent to service of process or to qualify as a foreign corporation or as a dealer in securities in any jurisdiction in which it is not so qualified or to subject itself to taxation in respect of doing business in any jurisdiction in which it is not otherwise so subject. In each jurisdiction in which the Placement Shares have been so qualified or exempt, the Company will file such statements and reports as may be required by the laws of such jurisdiction to continue such qualification or exemption, as the case may be, in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement).

 

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(w)            Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company will maintain and keep accurate books and records reflecting its assets and maintain internal accounting controls in a manner designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP and including those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company, (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit the preparation of the Company’s financial statements in accordance with GAAP, (iii) that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with management’s and the Company’s directors’ authorization, and (iv) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on its financial statements. The Company will maintain such controls and other procedures, including, without limitation, those required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and the applicable regulations thereunder that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including its principal executive officer and principal financial officer, or persons performing similar functions, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure and to ensure that material information relating to the Company is made known to it by others within the Company, particularly during the period in which such periodic reports are being prepared..

 

(x)            Emerging Growth Company. The Company will promptly notify the Agent if the company ceases to be an Emerging Growth Company at any time prior to the completion of the Agent’s distribution of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement.

 

(y)            Renewal of Registration Statement. If, immediately prior to the third anniversary of the initial effective date of the Registration Statement (the “Renewal Date”), any of the Placement Shares remain unsold and this Agreement has not been terminated, the Company will, prior to the Renewal Date, file a new shelf registration statement or, if applicable, an automatic shelf registration statement relating to the Common Stock that may be offered and sold pursuant to this Agreement (which shall include a prospectus reflecting the number or amount of Placement Shares that may be offered and sold pursuant to this Agreement), in a form satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, and, if such registration statement is not an automatic shelf registration statement, will use its best efforts to cause such registration statement to be declared effective within 180 days after the Renewal Date. The Company will take all other reasonable actions necessary or appropriate to permit the public offer and sale of the Placement Shares to continue as contemplated in the expired registration statement and this Agreement. From and after the effective date thereof, references herein to the “Registration Statement” shall include such new shelf registration statement or such new automatic shelf registration statement, as the case may be.

 

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(z)            General Instruction I.B.6. of Form S-3. If, from and after the date of this Agreement, the Company is no longer eligible to use Form S-3 (including pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6.) at the time it files with the Commission an annual report on Form 10-K or any post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement, then it shall promptly notify the Agent and, within two Business Days after the date of filing of such annual report on Form 10-K or amendment to the Registration Statement, the Company shall file a new prospectus supplement with the Commission reflecting the number of shares of Common Stock available to be offered and sold by the Company under this Agreement pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6. of Form S-3; provided, however, that the Company may delay the filing of any such prospectus supplement for up to 30 days if, in the reasonable judgment of the Company, it is in the best interest of the Company to do so, provided that no Placement Notice is in effect or pending during such time. Until such time as the Company shall have corrected such misstatement or omission or effected such compliance, the Company shall not notify the Agent to resume the offering of Placement Shares.

 

(aa)         Tax Indemnity. The Company will indemnify and hold harmless the Agent against any documentary, stamp or similar issue tax, including any interest and penalties, on the issue and sale of the Placement Shares.

 

(bb)         Transfer Agent. The Company has engaged and will maintain, at its sole expense, a transfer agent and registrar for the Common Stock.

 

8.            Conditions to the Agent’s Obligations. The obligations of the Agent hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by the Agent of a due diligence review satisfactory to the Agent in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by the Agent in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

 

(a)            Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall be effective and shall be available for all offers and sales of Placement Shares (i) that have been issued pursuant to all prior Placement Notices and (ii) that will be issued pursuant to any Placement Notice.

 

(b)            Prospectus Supplement. The Company shall have filed with the Commission the Prospectus Supplement pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act not later than the Commission’s close of business on the second Business Day following the date of this Agreement.

 

(c)            No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material Incorporated Document untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or Incorporated Documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, in the case of the Prospectus, so that it will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

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(d)            No Misstatement or Material Omission. The Agent shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Agent’s opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Agent’s opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

 

(e)            Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change, on a consolidated basis, in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Effect or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, or any downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), if any, by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), if any, the effect of which, in the judgment of the Agent (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

 

(f)            Company Counsel Legal Opinions. The Agent shall have received the opinions and negative assurance letters, as applicable, of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n), on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinions and negative assurance letters are required pursuant to Section 7(n).

 

(g)            Agent’s Counsel Legal Opinion. The Agent shall have received from Goodwin Procter LLP, counsel for the Agent, such opinion or opinions, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n), with respect to such matters as the Agent may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they may request to enable them to pass upon such matters.

 

(h)            Comfort Letter. The Agent shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(o) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(o).

 

(i)            Representation Certificate. The Agent shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(m).

 

(j)            Secretary’s Certificate. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date, the Agent shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by the Secretary of the Company and attested to by an executive officer of the Company, dated as of such date and in form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, certifying as to (i) the Company’s Charter, (ii) the Company’s Bylaws, (iii) the resolutions of the board of directors of the Company or duly authorized committee thereof authorizing the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares and (iv) the incumbency of the officers of the Company duly authorized to execute this Agreement and the other documents contemplated by this Agreement (including each of the officers set forth on Schedule 2).

 

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(k)            No Suspension. The Common Stock shall be duly listed, and admitted and authorized for trading, subject to official notice of issuance, on Nasdaq. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on, and the Common Stock shall not have been delisted from, Nasdaq.

 

(l)            Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m), the Company shall have furnished to the Agent such appropriate further information, opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as the Agent may have reasonably requested. All such information, opinions, certificates, letters and other documents shall have been in compliance with the provisions hereof. The Company shall have furnished the Agent with conformed copies of such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as the Agent may have reasonably requested.

 

(m)            Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424(b) or Rule 433 under the Securities Act required to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424(b) (without reliance on Rule 424(b)(8) of the Securities Act) or Rule 433, as applicable.

 

(n)            Approval for Listing. Either (i) the Placement Shares shall have been approved for listing on Nasdaq, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on Nasdaq at, or prior to, the First Placement Notice Date and Nasdaq shall have reviewed such application and not provided any objections thereto.

 

(o)            FINRA. FINRA shall have raised no objection to the terms of the offering contemplated hereby and the amount of compensation allowable or payable to the Agent as described in the Prospectus.

 

(p)            No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit the Agent to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 11(a).

 

9.            Indemnification and Contribution.

 

(a)            Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Agent, its affiliates and their respective partners, members, directors, officers, employees and agents, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Agent within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Agent, in each case from and against any and all losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any and all investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any and all amounts paid in settlement (in accordance with this Section 9), any action, suit, investigation or proceeding between any of the indemnified parties and any indemnifying parties or between any indemnified party and any third party (including any governmental or self-regulatory authority, or otherwise, or any claim asserted or threatened), as and when incurred, to which the Agent, or any such other person may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, liabilities, expenses or damages arise out of or are based, directly or indirectly, on (x) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus) or in any free writing prospectus or in any application or other document executed by or on behalf of the Company or based on written information furnished by or on behalf of the Company filed in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Common Stock under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission, (y) the omission or alleged omission to state in any such document a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein (solely with respect to the Prospectus, in light of the circumstances under which they were made) not misleading or (z) any breach by any of the indemnifying parties of any of their respective representations, warranties or agreements contained in this Agreement; provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to the extent that such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage arises from the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and is caused, directly or indirectly, by an untrue statement or omission, or alleged untrue statement or omission, made in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company might otherwise have.

 

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(b)            Agent Indemnification. The Agent agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 9(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information.

 

(c)            Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 9 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 9, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 9 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 9 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any other legal expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable documented costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm (plus local counsel) admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such documented fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly after the indemnifying party receives a written invoice relating to such documented fees, disbursements and other charges in reasonable detail. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 9 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent (1) includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to such indemnified party, from all liability arising out of such claim, action or proceeding and (2) does not include a statement as to or an admission of fault, culpability or a failure to act by or on behalf of any indemnified party.

 

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(d)            Settlement Without Consent if Failure to Reimburse. If an indemnified party shall have requested an indemnifying party to reimburse the indemnified party for reasonable fees and documented expenses of counsel for which it is entitled to be reimbursed under this Section 9, such indemnifying party agrees that it shall be liable for any settlement of the nature contemplated by Section 9(a) effected without its written consent if (i) such settlement is entered into more than 45 days after receipt by such indemnifying party of the aforesaid request, (ii) such indemnifying party shall have received notice of the terms of such settlement at least 30 days prior to such settlement being entered into and (iii) such indemnifying party shall not have reimbursed such indemnified party in accordance with such request prior to the date of such settlement.

 

(e)            Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 9 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable or insufficient from the Company or the Agent, the Company and the Agent will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any documented investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit, investigation or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than the Agent, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and the Agent may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by the Agent from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action, suit, investigation or proceeding in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or the Agent, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and the Agent agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 9(e) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action, suit, investigation or proceeding in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 9(e) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 9(e), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action, suit, investigation, proceeding or claim to the extent consistent with this Section 9. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 9(e), the Agent shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 9(e), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, any affiliates of the Agent, any partners, members, directors, officers, employees and agents of the Agent and each person that is controlled by or under common control with the Agent will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 9(e), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 9(e) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 9(c) hereof or pursuant to Section 9(d) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 9(c) hereof.

 

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10.            Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 9 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of the Agent, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors, employees or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

 

11.            Termination.

 

(a)            The Agent shall have the right, by giving notice as hereinafter specified, at any time to terminate this Agreement if (i) any Material Adverse Effect, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, has occurred that, in the judgment of the Agent, may materially impair the ability of the Agent to sell the Placement Shares hereunder, (ii) the Company shall have failed, refused or been unable to perform any agreement on its part to be performed hereunder; provided, however, in the case of any failure of the Company to deliver (or cause another person to deliver) any certification, opinion or letter required under Section 7(m) and Section 7(n), the Agent’s right to terminate shall not arise unless such failure to deliver (or cause to be delivered) continues for more than 15 calendar days from the date such delivery was required, (iii) any other condition of the Agent’s obligations hereunder is not fulfilled, (iv) any suspension or limitation of trading in the Placement Shares or in securities generally on Nasdaq shall have occurred, (v) a general banking moratorium shall have been declared by any of United States federal or New York authorities, or (vi) there shall have occurred any outbreak or escalation of national or international hostilities or any crisis or calamity, or any change in the United States or international financial markets, or any substantial change or development involving a prospective substantial change in United States or international political, financial or economic conditions that, in the judgment of the Agent, may materially impair the ability of the Agent to sell the Placement Shares hereunder or to enforce contracts for the sale of securities. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If the Agent elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 11(a), the Agent shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 12.

 

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(b)            The Company shall have the right, by giving 10 days’ prior notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(c)            The Agent shall have the right, by giving 10 days’ prior notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(d)            Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 11, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Placement Shares through the Agent on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein; provided that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(e)            This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 11(a), (b), (c), or (d) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect.

 

(f)            Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by the Agent or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement. Upon termination of this Agreement, the Company shall not be required to pay to the Agent any discount or commission with respect to any Placement Shares not otherwise sold by the Agent under this Agreement; provided, however, that the Company shall remain obligated to reimburse the Agent’s expenses pursuant to Section 7(g).

 

12.            Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified in this Agreement, and if sent to the Agent, shall be delivered to:

 

SVB Leerink LLC

1301 Avenue of the Americas, 12th Floor

New York, New York 10019

Attention: Peter M. Fry

E-mail: peter.fry@svbleerink.com

 

with a copy (which shall not constitute notice) to:

 

SVB Leerink LLC

1301 Avenue of the Americas, 12th Floor

New York, New York 10019

Attention: Stuart R. Nayman, Esq.

E-mail: stuart.nayman@svbleerink.com

 

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and if to the Company, shall be delivered to:

 

Eyenovia, Inc.

295 Madison Avenue, Suite 2400

New York, New York 10017

Attention: Chief Executive Officer

E-mail: tianchul@eyenoviabio.com

 

with copies (which shall not constitute notice) to:

 

Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C.

1 Financial Center

Boston, Massachusetts 02111

Attention: Megan Gates

E-mail: MGates@mintz.com

 

Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally on or before 4:30 P.M., New York City time, on a Business Day, or, if such day is not a Business Day, on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) by Electronic Notice as set forth in the next paragraph, (iii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier or (iv) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Nasdaq and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

 

An electronic communication (“Electronic Notice”) shall be deemed written notice for purposes of this Section 12 if sent to the electronic mail address specified by the receiving party in Section 12. Electronic Notice shall be deemed received at the time the party sending Electronic Notice receives actual acknowledgment of receipt from the person whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply. Any party receiving Electronic Notice may request and shall be entitled to receive the notice on paper, in a nonelectronic form (“Nonelectronic Notice”), which shall be sent to the requesting party within 10 days of receipt of the written request for Nonelectronic Notice.

 

13.            Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and the Agent and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers, directors and other persons referred to in Section 9 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of each such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto, the persons referred to in the preceding sentence and their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that the Agent may assign its rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate of the Agent without obtaining the Company’s consent, so long as such affiliate is a registered broker-dealer.

 

14.            Adjustments for Share Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share split, share dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Common Stock.

 

29

 

 

15.            Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability; Waiver. This Agreement (including all schedules (as amended pursuant to this Agreement) and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and the Agent; provided, however, that Schedule 2 of this Agreement may be amended by either party from time to time by sending a notice containing a revised Schedule 2 to the other party in the manner provided in Section 12 and, upon such amendment, all references herein to Schedule 2 shall automatically be deemed to refer to such amended Schedule 2. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement. No implied waiver by a party shall arise in the absence of a waiver in writing signed by such party. No failure or delay in exercising any right, power, or privilege hereunder shall operate as a waiver thereof, nor shall any single or partial exercise thereof preclude any other or further exercise thereof or the exercise of any right, power, or privilege hereunder.

 

16.            GOVERNING LAW AND TIME; WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL. THIS AGREEMENT SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO THE PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAWS. SPECIFIED TIMES OF DAY REFER TO NEW YORK CITY TIME. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

 

17.            Consent to Jurisdiction. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, Borough of Manhattan, for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection with any of the transactions contemplated hereby, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is brought in an inconvenient forum, or that the venue of such suit, action or proceeding is improper. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested) to such party at the address in effect for notices under Section 12 of this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient notice of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any manner permitted by law.

 

18.            Construction.

 

(a)            The section and exhibit headings herein are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

 

(b)            Words defined in the singular shall have a comparable meaning when used in the plural, and vice versa.

 

30

 

 

(c)            The words “hereof,” “hereto,” “herein” and “hereunder” and words of similar import, when used in this Agreement, shall refer to this Agreement as a whole and not to any particular provision of this Agreement.

 

(d)            Wherever the word “include,” “includes” or “including” is used in this Agreement, it shall be deemed to be followed by the words “without limitation.”

 

(e)            References herein to any gender shall include each other gender.

 

(f)            References herein to any law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any governmental authority shall be deemed to refer to such law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any governmental authority as amended, reenacted, supplemented or superseded in whole or in part and in effect from time to time and also to all rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

19.            Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses. Each of the Company and the Agent represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior written consent of the other party, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Placement Shares that would constitute an issuer free writing prospectus, or that would otherwise constitute a free writing prospectus (as defined in Rule 405), required to be filed with the Commission. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Agent or by the Company, as the case may be, is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company represents and warrants that it has treated and agrees that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an issuer free writing prospectus, and that it has complied and will comply with the requirements of Rule 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including timely filing with the Commission where required, legending and record keeping.

 

20.            Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

 

(a)            the Agent has been retained to act as sales agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares, the Agent has acted at arms’ length and no fiduciary or advisory relationship between the Company or any of its respective affiliates, stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees or any other party, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, has been or will be created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether the Agent has advised or is advising the Company on other matters and the Agent has no duties or obligations to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement except the obligations expressly set forth herein;

 

(b)            the Company is capable of evaluating, and understanding and understands and accepts, the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;

 

(c)            neither the Agent nor its affiliates have provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and it has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it has deemed appropriate;

 

(d)            the Company has been advised and is aware that the Agent and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and that the Agent and its affiliates have no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship or otherwise; and

 

31

 

 

(e)            the Company waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against the Agent or its affiliates for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and agrees that the Agent and its affiliates shall have no liability (whether direct or indirect) to the Company in respect of such a fiduciary claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on behalf of or in right of the Company, including stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees of the Company.

 

21.            Recognition of the U.S. Special Resolution Regimes. In the event that the Agent is a Covered Entity and becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, the transfer from the Agent of this Agreement, and any interest and obligation in or under this Agreement, will be effective to the same extent as the transfer would be effective under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement, and any such interest and obligation, were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.

 

In the event that the Agent is a Covered Entity and the Agent or a BHC Act Affiliate of the Agent becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, Default Rights under this Agreement that may be exercised against the Agent are permitted to be exercised to no greater extent than such Default Rights could be exercised under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.

 

For purposes of this Agreement, (A) “BHC Act Affiliate” has the meaning assigned to the term “affiliate” in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 U.S.C. § 1841(k); (B) “Covered Entity” means any of the following: (i) a “covered entity” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 252.82(b); (ii) a “covered bank” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 47.3(b); or (iii) a “covered FSI” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 382.2(b); (C) “Default Right” has the meaning assigned to that term in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. §§ 252.81, 47.2 or 382.1, as applicable; and (D) “U.S. Special Resolution Regime” means each of (i) the Federal Deposit Insurance Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder and (ii) Title II of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

22.            Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile or electronic transmission. Counterparts may be delivered via facsimile, electronic mail (including any electronic signature covered by the U.S. federal ESIGN Act of 2000, Uniform Electronic Transactions Act, the Electronic Signatures and Records Act or other applicable law, e.g., www.docusign.com) or other transmission method and any counterpart so delivered shall be deemed to have been duly and validly delivered and be valid and effective for all purposes.

 

23.            Use of Information. The Agent may not provide any information gained in connection with this Agreement and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including due diligence, to any third party other than its legal counsel advising it on this Agreement and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement unless expressly approved by the Company in writing.

 

24.            Agent’s Information. As used in this Agreement, “Agent’s Information” means solely the following information in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus: the eighth paragraph under the heading “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus Supplement.

 

32

 

 

All references in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to any of the foregoing shall be deemed to include the copy filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR. All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information that is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information that is incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be.

  

All references in this Agreement to “supplements” to the Prospectus shall include any supplements, “wrappers” or similar materials prepared in connection with any offering, sale or private placement of any Placement Shares by the Agent outside of the United States.

 

[Remainder of Page Intentionally Blank]

 

33

 

 

If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and the Agent, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and the Agent.

 

  Very truly yours,
   
  EYENOVIA, INC.
   
   
  By: /s/ John Gandolfo
    Name: John Gandolfo
    Title: Chief Financial Officer
   
   
  ACCEPTED as of the date
  first-above written:
   
  SVB LEERINK LLC
   
   
  By: /s/ Peter Fry
    Name: Peter Fry
    Title: Head of Alternative Equities

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 1

 

FORM OF PLACEMENT NOTICE

 

From: [                             ]
  [TITLE]
  Eyenovia, Inc.
Cc: [                             ]
To: SVB Leerink LLC
Subject: SVB Leerink—At the Market Offering—Placement Notice

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement, dated December 14, 2021 (the “Agreement”), by and between Eyenovia, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and SVB Leerink LLC (“SVB Leerink”), I hereby request on behalf of the Company that SVB Leerink sell up to [ ] shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, of the Company (the “Shares”), at a minimum market price of $      per share[; provided that no more than [ ] Shares shall be sold in any one Trading Day (as such term is defined in Section 3 of the Agreement)]. Sales should begin [on the date of this Placement Notice] and end on [DATE] [until all Shares that are the subject of this Placement Notice are sold].

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 2

 

The Company

 

tianchul@eyenoviabio.com

jgandolfo@eyenoviabio.com

 

 

SVB Leerink

 

Michael.giaquinto@svbleerink.com

Matthew.pangia@svbleerink.com

atm@svbleerink.com

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 3

 

Compensation

 

The Company shall pay SVB Leerink compensation in cash equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of Placement Shares pursuant to the terms of the Sales Agreement of which this Schedule 3 forms a part.

 

 

 

Exhibit 7(m)

 

OFFICERS’ CERTIFICATE

 

Each of [●], the duly qualified and elected Chief Executive Officer of Eyenovia, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [●], the duly qualified and elected Chief Financial Officer of the Company, does hereby certify in his respective capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 7(m) of the Sales Agreement, dated December 14, 2021 (the “Sales Agreement”), by and between the Company and SVB Leerink LLC, that, after due inquiry, to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned:

 

(i)            The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Effect, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions relating to materiality or Material Adverse Effect, are true and correct in all material respects as of the date hereof as if made on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof.

 

(ii)            The Company has complied with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof.

 

(iii)            As of the date hereof, (A) the Registration Statement complies in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading, (B) the Prospectus complies in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading and (C) no event has occurred as a result of which it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or the Prospectus in order to make the statements therein not untrue or misleading or for clauses (A) and (B) above, to be true and correct.

 

(iv)            There has been no material adverse change, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a material adverse change, in the condition (financial or otherwise), earnings, results of operations, business, properties, operations, assets, liabilities or prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business, since the date as of which information is given in the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented to the date hereof.

 

(v)            The Company does not possess any material non-public information.

 

(vi)            The maximum amount of Placement Shares that may be sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement has been duly authorized by the Company’s board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof pursuant to a resolution or unanimous written consent in accordance with the Company’s amended and restated articles of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and applicable law.

 

 

 

Capitalized terms used but not defined herein shall have the meanings ascribed to them in the Sales Agreement.

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, each of the undersigned, in such individual’s respective capacity as Chief Executive Officer or Chief Financial Officer of the Company, has executed this Officers’ Certificate on behalf of the Company.

 

  By:  
    Name:
    Title: Chief Executive Officer
    Date:
   
   
  By:  
    Name:
    Title: Chief Financial Officer
    Date:

 

[Company Signature Page to Officers’ Certificate]

 

 

 

Exhibit 4.1

 

EYENOVIA, INC.

 

Issuer

 

AND

 

[●]

 

Trustee

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of [●]

 

Senior Debt Securities

 

  

 

 

CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE (1)

 

Section of

Trust Indenture Act

of 1939, as Amended

  Section of
Indenture
 
310(a).     7.09  
310(b).     7.08  
      7.10  
310(c).     Inapplicable  
311(a).     7.13(a)  
311(b).     7.13(b)  
311(c).     Inapplicable  
312(a)     5.02(a)  
312(b).     5.02(b)  
312(c).     5.02(c)  
313(a).     5.04(a)  
313(b).     5.04(a)  
313(c).     5.04(a)  
      5.04(b)  
313(d).     5.04(b)  
314(a).     5.03  
314(b).     Inapplicable  
314(c).     13.06  
314(d).     Inapplicable  
314(e).     13.06  
314(f).     Inapplicable  
315(a).     7.01(a)  
      7.02  
315(b).     6.07  
315(c).     7.01  
315(d).     7.01(b)  
      7.01(c)  
315(e).     6.07  
316(a).     6.06  
      8.04  
316(b).     6.04  
316(c).     8.01  
317(a).     6.02  
317(b).     4.03  
318(a).     13.08  

 

 

(1) This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

 i 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS (2)

 

    Page  
ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS     1  
     
SECTION 1.01   Definitions of Terms     1  
   
ARTICLE II ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES     4  
     
SECTION 2.01   Designation and Terms of Securities     4  
     
SECTION 2.02   Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate     5  
     
SECTION 2.03   Denominations: Provisions for Payment     6  
     
SECTION 2.04   Execution and Authentications     7  
     
SECTION 2.05   Registration of Transfer and Exchange     7  
     
SECTION 2.06   Temporary Securities     8  
     
SECTION 2.07   Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities     9  
     
SECTION 2.08   Cancellation     9  
     
SECTION 2.09   Benefits of Indenture     9  
     
SECTION 2.10   Authenticating Agent     9  
     
SECTION 2.11   Global Securities     10  
   
ARTICLE III REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS     11  
     
SECTION 3.01   Redemption     11  
     
SECTION 3.02   Notice of Redemption     11  
     
SECTION 3.03   Payment Upon Redemption     12  
     
SECTION 3.04   Sinking Fund     12  
     
SECTION 3.05   Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities     12  
     
SECTION 3.06   Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund     12  
   
ARTICLE IV COVENANTS     13  
     
SECTION 4.01   Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest     13  
     
SECTION 4.02   Maintenance of Office or Agency     13  
     
SECTION 4.03   Paying Agents     13  
     
SECTION 4.04   Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee     14  
     
SECTION 4.05   Compliance with Consolidation Provisions     14  

 

 ii 

 

 

ARTICLE V SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE     14  
     
SECTION 5.01   Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders     14  
     
SECTION 5.02   Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders     14  
     
SECTION 5.03   Reports by the Company     15  
     
SECTION 5.04   Reports by the Trustee     15  
   
ARTICLE VI REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT     16  
     
SECTION 6.01   Events of Default     16  
     
SECTION 6.02   Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee     17  
     
SECTION 6.03   Application of Moneys Collected     18  
     
SECTION 6.04   Limitation on Suits     19  
     
SECTION 6.05   Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver     19  
     
SECTION 6.06   Control by Securityholders     19  
     
SECTION 6.07   Undertaking to Pay Costs     20  
   
ARTICLE VII CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE     20  
     
SECTION 7.01   Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee     20  
     
SECTION 7.02   Certain Rights of Trustee     21  
     
SECTION 7.03   Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities     22  
     
SECTION 7.04   May Hold Securities     22  
     
SECTION 7.05   Moneys Held in Trust     22  
     
SECTION 7.06   Compensation and Reimbursement     22  
     
SECTION 7.07   Reliance on Officers’ Certificate     23  
     
SECTION 7.08   Disqualification; Conflicting Interests     23  
     
SECTION 7.09   Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility     23  
     
SECTION 7.10   Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor     23  
     
SECTION 7.11   Acceptance of Appointment By Successor     24  
     
SECTION 7.12   Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business     25  
     
SECTION 7.13   Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company     26  
   
ARTICLE VIII CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS     26  
     
SECTION 8.01   Evidence of Action by Securityholders     26  
     
SECTION 8.02   Proof of Execution by Securityholders     26  
     
SECTION 8.03   Who May be Deemed Owners     26  

 

 iii 

 

 

SECTION 8.04   Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded     27  
     
SECTION 8.05   Actions Binding on Future Securityholders     27  
     
SECTION 8.06   Purposes for Which Meetings May Be Called     27  
     
SECTION 8.07   Call Notice and Place of Meetings     27  
     
SECTION 8.08   Persons Entitled To Vote at Meetings     28  
     
SECTION 8.09   Quorum; Action     28  
     
SECTION 8.10   Determination of Voting Rights; Conduct and Adjournment of Meetings     28  
     
SECTION 8.11   Counting Votes and Recording Action of Meetings     29  
   
ARTICLE IX SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES     29  
     
SECTION 9.01   Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders     29  
     
SECTION 9.02   Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders     30  
     
SECTION 9.03   Effect of Supplemental Indentures     30  
     
SECTION 9.04   Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures     31  
     
SECTION 9.05   Execution of Supplemental Indentures     31  
   
ARTICLE X SUCCESSOR ENTITY     31  
     
SECTION 10.01   Company May Consolidate, Etc.     31  
     
SECTION 10.02   Successor Entity Substituted     32  
     
SECTION 10.03   Evidence of Consolidation, Etc. to Trustee     32  
   
ARTICLE XI SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE     32  
     
SECTION 11.01   Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture     32  
     
SECTION 11.02   Discharge of Obligations     33  
     
SECTION 11.03   Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust     33  
     
SECTION 11.04   Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents     33  
     
SECTION 11.05   Repayment to Company     33  
   
ARTICLE XII IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS     33  
     
SECTION 12.01   No Recourse     33  

 

 iv 

 

 

ARTICLE XIII MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS     34  
     
SECTION 13.01   Effect on Successors and Assigns     34  
     
SECTION 13.02   Actions by Successor     34  
     
SECTION 13.03   Surrender of Company Powers     34  
     
SECTION 13.04   Notices     34  
     
SECTION 13.05   Governing Law     34  
     
SECTION 13.06   Treatment of Securities as Debt     35  
     
SECTION 13.07   Compliance Certificates and Opinions     35  
     
SECTION 13.08   Payments on Business Days     35  
     
SECTION 13.09   Conflict with Trust Indenture Act     35  
     
SECTION 13.10   Counterparts     35  
     
SECTION 13.11   Separability     35  
     
SECTION 13.12   Assignment     36  

 

 

(2) This Table of Contents does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms and provisions.  

 

 v 

 

 

INDENTURE, dated as of [●], by and between Eyenovia, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [●], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

 

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

 

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

 

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

 

ARTICLE I

 

DEFINITIONS

 

SECTION 1.01     Definitions of Terms.

 

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

 

“Authenticating Agent” means an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed with respect to all or any series of the Securities by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

 

“Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

 

“Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

 

“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

 

“Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which Federal or State banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

 

“Certificate” means a certificate signed by the principal executive officer, the principal financial officer or the principal accounting officer of the Company. The Certificate need not comply with the provisions of Section 13.07.

 

“Commission” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

“Company” means the corporation named as the “Company” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor corporation shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Company” shall mean such successor corporation.

 

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“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at [●], except that whenever a provision herein refers to an office or agency of the Trustee in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, such office is located, at the date hereof, at [●].

 

“Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator, or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

“Default” means an event which is, or after notice or lapse of time, or both, would constitute an Event of Default.

 

“Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series, for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or Section 2.11.

 

“Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

 

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

“Global Security” means, with respect to any series of Securities, a Security executed by the Company and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with this Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

 

“Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are non-callable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended) as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

“herein,” “hereof” and “hereunder,” and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

 

“Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof.

 

“Interest Payment Date,” when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

 

“Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by the President or a Vice President and by the Chief Financial Officer, Vice President of Finance, the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer or the Controller or an Assistant Controller or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of counsel, who may be counsel to the Company (and may include directors or employees of the Company) and which opinion is acceptable to the Trustee which acceptance shall not be unreasonably withheld.

 

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“Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as in Article III provided, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.

 

“Person” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint-venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, estate, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

 

“Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security.

 

“Responsible Officer,” when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer of the Trustee, including any vice president, assistant vice president, secretary, assistant secretary, the treasurer, any assistant treasurer, the managing director or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of such officer’s knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

 

“Securities” means the debt Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

“Security Register” has the meaning specified in Section 2.05.

 

“Security Registrar” has the meaning specified in Section 2.05.

 

“Securityholder,” “holder of Securities,” “registered holder,” or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security shall be registered in the Security Register.

 

“Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, (i) any corporation at least a majority of whose outstanding Voting Stock shall at the time be owned, directly or indirectly, by such Person or by one or more of its Subsidiaries or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries, (ii) any general partnership, joint venture or similar entity, at least a majority of whose outstanding partnership or similar interests shall at the time be owned by such Person, or by one or more of its Subsidiaries, or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries and (iii) any limited partnership of which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries is a general partner.

 

“Trustee” means the Person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean such successor Trustee. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

 

“Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, subject to the provisions of Sections 9.01, 9.02, and 10.01, as in effect at the date of execution of this instrument; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act is amended after such date, Trust Indenture Act means, to the extent required by such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as so amended, or any successor statute.

 

“Voting Stock,” as applied to any Person, means shares, interests, participations or other equivalents in the equity interest (however designated) in such Person having ordinary voting power for the election of a majority of the directors (or the equivalent) of such Person, other than shares, interests, participations or other equivalents having such power only by reason of the occurrence of a contingency.

 

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ARTICLE II

 

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION,

 

REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

 

SECTION 2.01     Designation and Terms of Securities.

 

  (a) The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of a given series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate of the Company, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

 

  (1) the title of the Security of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from all other Securities);

 

  (2) the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series initially to be issued and any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

 

  (3) the currency or units based on or relating to currencies in which debt securities of such series are denominated and the currency or units in which principal or interest or both will or may be payable;

 

  (4) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable and the place(s) of payment;

 

  (5) the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest or the manner of calculation of such rate or rates, if any;

 

  (6) the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such Interest Payment Dates, the place(s) of payment, and the record date for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable on any such Interest Payment Dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

  (7) the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods or to defer the payment of interest and the duration of such extension;

 

  (8) the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

  (9) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions (including payments made in cash in satisfaction of future sinking fund obligations) or at the option of a holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which, and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

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  (10) whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

  (11) the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the Certificate of Authentication for such series;

 

  (12) if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable;

 

  (13) any and all other terms with respect to such series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the terms of this Indenture, as amended by any supplemental indenture) including any terms which may be required by or advisable under United States laws or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

 

  (14) whether the Securities are issuable as a Global Security and, in such case, the identity of the Depositary for such series;

 

  (15) whether the Securities will be convertible into shares of common stock or other securities of the Company and, if so, the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible, including the conversion price and the conversion period;

 

  (16) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01; and

 

  (17) any additional or different Events of Default or restrictive covenants provided for with respect to the Securities of the series.

 

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

 

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officers’ Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

 

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.

 

SECTION 2.02     Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.

 

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution of the Company and as set forth in an Officers’ Certificate of the Company and may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any stock exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

 

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SECTION 2.03Denominations: Provisions for Payment.

 

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(12). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series. The principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption thereof prior to maturity, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

 

The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment. In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

 

Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

 

  (1) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be mailed, first class postage prepaid, to each Securityholder at his or her address as it appears in the Security Register, not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been mailed as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered on such special record date.

 

  (2) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

 

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Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution of the Company or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities with respect to any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the last day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

 

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

 

SECTION 2.04Execution and Authentications.

 

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by its President, or one of its Vice Presidents, or its Treasurer, or one of its Assistant Treasurers, or its Secretary, or one of its Assistant Secretaries, under its corporate seal attested by its Secretary or one of its Assistant Secretaries. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature. The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been a President or Vice President thereof, or of any Person who shall have been a Treasurer or Assistant Treasurer thereof, or of any Person who shall have been a Secretary or Assistant Secretary thereof, notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be the President or a Vice President, the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, of the Company. The seal of the Company may be in the form of a facsimile of such seal and may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Securities. The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

 

A Security shall not be valid or obligatory for any purpose and shall not be entitled to any benefit under this Indenture, in each case, until authenticated with a certificate of authentication manually signed by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such certificate shall be conclusive evidence, and the only evidence, that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the Security is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture. At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by its President or any Vice President and its Secretary or any Assistant Secretary, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.

 

In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 7.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating that the form and terms thereof have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.

 

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

 

SECTION 2.05Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

 

  (a) Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section. In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

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  (b) The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, or such other location designated by the Company a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution (the “Security Registrar”).

 

Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.

 

All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

 

  (c) No service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, Section 3.03(b) and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.

 

  (d) The Company shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the mailing of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption. The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.

 

SECTION 2.06Temporary Securities.

 

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination. Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company. Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series. Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the holders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

 

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SECTION 2.07Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.

 

In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof. The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company. Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith. In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

 

Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

 

SECTION 2.08Cancellation.

 

All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, exchange or registration of transfer shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee. In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

SECTION 2.09Benefits of Indenture.

 

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities.

 

SECTION 2.10Authenticating Agent.

 

So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint. Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by Federal or State authorities. If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.

 

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Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.

 

SECTION 2.11Global Securities

 

  (a) If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that some or all of the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, the Outstanding Securities of such series which are to be issued as a Global Security, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

 

  (b) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

  (c) If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.05, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series. In such event the Company will execute and subject to Section 2.05, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officers’ Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

 

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ARTICLE III

 

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING

FUND PROVISIONS

 

SECTION 3.01Redemption.

 

The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

 

SECTION 3.02Notice of Redemption.

 

  (a) In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with the right reserved so to do, the Company shall, or shall cause the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing, first class postage prepaid, a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 90 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such holders at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security Register unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed. Any notice that is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice. In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series. In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officers’ Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.

 

Each such notice of redemption shall specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is for a sinking fund, if such is the case. If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in whole or in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed. In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

 

  (b) If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 30 days’ notice in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Trustee shall select, by lot or in such other manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than $1,000, the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part. The Company may, if and whenever it shall so elect, by delivery of instructions signed on its behalf by its President or any Vice President, instruct the Trustee or any paying agent to call all or any part of the Securities of a particular series for redemption and to give notice of redemption in the manner set forth in this Section, such notice to be in the name of the Company or its own name as the Trustee or such paying agent may deem advisable. In any case in which notice of redemption is to be given by the Trustee or any such paying agent, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to, or permit to remain with, the Trustee or such paying agent, as the case may be, such Security Register, transfer books or other records, or suitable copies or extracts therefrom, sufficient to enable the Trustee or such paying agent to give any notice by mail that may be required under the provisions of this Section.

 

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SECTION 3.03Payment Upon Redemption.

 

  (a) If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof. On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an interest payment date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).

 

  (b) Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the holder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

 

SECTION 3.04Sinking Fund.

 

The provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.

 

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment.” If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

 

SECTION 3.05Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

 

The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series (other than any Securities previously called for redemption) and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

 

SECTION 3.06Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

 

Not less than 45 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officers’ Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered. Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

 

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ARTICLE IV

 

COVENANTS

 

SECTION 4.01Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.

 

The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities.

 

SECTION 4.02Maintenance of Office or Agency.

 

So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented or surrendered for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as herein above authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall, by written notice signed by its President or a Vice President and delivered to the trustee, designate some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands.

 

SECTION 4.03Paying Agents.

 

  (a) If the Company shall appoint one or more paying agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:

 

  (1) that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;

 

  (2) that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;

 

  (3) that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent; and

 

  (4) that it will perform all other duties of paying agent as set forth in this Indenture.

 

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  (b) If the Company shall act as its own paying agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient with monies held by all other paying agents to pay such principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action. Whenever the Company shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (an premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.

 

  (c) Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary, (i) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and (ii) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any paying agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such paying agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such paying agent; and, upon such payment by any paying agent to the Trustee, such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.

 

SECTION 4.04Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.

 

The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.

 

SECTION 4.05Compliance with Consolidation Provisions.

 

The Company will not, while any of the Securities remain Outstanding, consolidate with or merge into any other Person, in either case where the Company is not the survivor of such transaction, or sell or convey all or substantially all of its property to any other company unless the provisions of Article X hereof are complied with.

 

ARTICLE V

 

SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS

BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

 

SECTION 5.01Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.

 

If the Company is not the Security Register, the Company will furnish or use reasonable efforts to cause to be furnished to the Trustee (a) on each regular record date (as defined in Section 2.03) a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to furnish such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.

 

SECTION 5.02Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders.

 

  (a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity) and shall otherwise comply with Section 312(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

  (b) The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

 

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  (c) Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities.

 

SECTION 5.03Reports by the Company.

 

  (a) The Company covenants and agrees to file with the Trustee, within 15 days after the Company is required to file the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; or, if the Company is not required to file information, documents or reports pursuant to either of such sections, then to file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission, such of the supplementary and periodic information, documents and reports that may be required pursuant to Section 13 of the Exchange Act, in respect of a security listed and registered on a national securities exchange as may be prescribed from time to time in such rules and regulations; provided, however, the Company shall not be required to deliver to the Trustee any materials for which the Company has sought and received confidential treatment by the Commission. The Company also shall comply with the other provisions of Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

  (b) The Company covenants and agrees to file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from to time by the Commission, such additional information, documents and reports with respect to compliance by the Company with the conditions and covenants provided for in this Indenture as may be required from time to time by such rules and regulations.

 

  (c) The Company covenants and agrees to transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, or reputable over-night delivery service that provides for evidence of receipt, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register, within 30 days after the filing thereof with the Trustee, such summaries of any information, documents and reports required to be filed by the Company pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this Section as may be required by rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission.

 

SECTION 5.04Reports by the Trustee.

 

  (a) The Trustee shall transmit to holders as provided in Section 313 of the Trust Indenture Act such reports concerning the Trustee and its actions under this Indenture as may be required by Section 313 of the Trust Indenture Act at the times and in the manner provided by the Trust Indenture Act.

 

  (b) A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each stock exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and, if required by Section 313 of the Trust Indenture Act, also with the Commission. The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any stock exchange.

 

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ARTICLE VI

 

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS

ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

 

SECTION 6.01Events of Default.

 

  (a) Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing:

 

  (1) the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

  (2) the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

  (3) the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been given to the Company by the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or to the Company and the Trustee by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;

 

  (4) the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property or (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or

 

  (5) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order under any Bankruptcy Law that (i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company for all or substantially all of its property, or (iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 consecutive days.

 

  (b) In each and every such case, unless the principal of all the Securities of that series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal (or, if any Securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series pursuant to Section 2.01(a)(16)) of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable.

 

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  (c) At any time after the principal of the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before a judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder (or, by action at a meeting of holders of the Securities of such series in accordance with Section 8.09, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding represented at such meeting), by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if: (i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration and (ii) any and all Events of Default under this Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on Securities of that series that shall have become due solely because of such acceleration, shall have been remedied, cured or waived as provided in Section 6.06. No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

  (d) In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceedings, the Company, and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

 

SECTION 6.02Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

 

  (a) The Company covenants that (1) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, or any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 90 Business Days, or (2) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration or otherwise, then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have been become due and payable on all such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06.

 

  (b) If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.

 

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  (c) In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affected the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under this Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.06.

 

  (d) All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.06, be for the ratable benefit of the holders of the Securities of such series.

 

In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

 

Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.

 

SECTION 6.03Application of Moneys Collected.

 

Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

FIRST: To the payment of costs and expenses of collection and of all amounts payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and

 

SECOND: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively.

 

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SECTION 6.04Limitation on Suits.

 

No holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless (i) such holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided; (ii) the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as trustee hereunder; (iii) such holder or holders shall have offered to the Trustee such reasonable indemnity as it may require against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred therein or thereby; and (iv) the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding and (v) during such 60 day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series (or such amount as shall have acted at a meeting of the holders of Securities of such series pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture) do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request; provided, however, that no one or more of such holders may use this Indenture to prejudice the rights of another holder or to obtain preference or priority over another holder.

 

Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary, any other provisions of this Indenture, the right of any holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and holder and the Trustee, that no one or more holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all holders of Securities of such series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

 

SECTION 6.05Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

 

  (a) Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the Trustee or the holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.

 

  (b) No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or on acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.

 

SECTION 6.06Control by Securityholders.

 

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.01, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture or be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of Securities of any other series at the time Outstanding determined in accordance with Section 8.01. Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or Officers of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability. The holders either (a) through the written consent of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding or (b) by action at a meeting of holders of the Securities of such series in accordance with Section 8.09, by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding represented at such meeting, may on behalf of the holders of all of the Securities of such series waive any past default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest and principal and any premium has been deposited with the Trustee (in accordance with Section 6.01(c)) and except in respect a provision hereof which, under Section 9.02, cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each Outstanding Security affected; provided however that this Section shall not limit the right of holders of Securities of a series to rescind and annul any acceleration as set forth in Section 6.01. Upon any such waiver, the default covered thereby shall be deemed to be cured for all purposes of this Indenture and the Company, the Trustee and the holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon. The provisions which otherwise would be automatically deemed to be contained in this Indenture pursuant to Section (316)(a)(1) of the Trust Indenture Act are hereby expressly excluded from this Indenture, except to the extent such provisions are expressly included herein.

 

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SECTION 6.07Undertaking to Pay Costs.

 

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each holder of any Securities by such holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

 

ARTICLE VII

 

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

 

SECTION 7.01Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.

 

  (a) The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs.

 

  (b) No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

 

  (1) prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred:

 

  (i) the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

 

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  (ii) in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirement of this Indenture;

 

  (2) the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee, was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

 

  (3) the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that series; and

 

  (4) None of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if there is reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or liability is not reasonably assured to it under the terms of this Indenture or adequate indemnity against such risk is not reasonably assured to it.

 

SECTION 7.02     Certain Rights of Trustee.

 

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01:

 

  (a) The Trustee may rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

 

  (b)